What are the Various Definitions of Civilisation?

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In contrast with this, culture represents the group life of man at all the stages of his social development. The term civilisation is also used to cover all the social organisations and other attainments of man which mark him off from other animals. Definition

1. Goldenweiser used the term ‘Civilisation’ identically with culture to refer to ali theliurnan achievements.

2. Kant used the term civilisation to mean outward behaviour of man.

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3. According to Gillin and Gillin civilisation is a more complex and evolved form of culture.

4. Ogburn and Nimkoff conceived of civilisation as the latter phase of the superorganic culture.

According to MacIver and Page civilisation is the whole apparatus of life.

Civilisation refers to those devices and instruments by which nature is controlled. It includes technical and material equipments like a printing press, a locomotive, a tractor, a radio, television, teleprompter, typewriter, aeroplane, machine gun, etc.

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It-also includes the whole apparatus of economic’ and political organisations like our schools, colleges, currency systems, banking system, par­liament, insurance schemes, etc.

Civilisation is thus external, mechanical, utilitarian, and concerned with the means. We need the products of civilisation not for their own sake but for the satisfaction of our wants.

For example, we need a car, a scooter, bus, a locomotive for travelling; we want radio, television, wireless, post and telegraph, for communication, we want banks and currency systems for trade and commerce and so on. Definitely, we are not possessing these things just for the sake of possession.

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