When one talks of an organization as a base, there can be three such institutional arrangements namely manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers.
1. Manufacturers’ Salesmen:
In case of manufacturers organization, there can be three types of salesmen namely, pioneer, dealer service and merchandising.
(i) Pioneering Salesman:
Pioneering salesmen are the salespeople who are known missionary work in sales. These are known as “distribution getting representatives.” That is they are to break the new ice, sow the seeds of sale. They introduce a new product or proc line in the market place by being creative in their efforts. These salesmen reach new areas well before the market surveys and advertising campaigns reach. They are capable of convincing the wholesalers, distributors, dealers and retailers to try the products or proc range.
They do the work of not only introducing the company’s new product, but create fertile ground for its success by killing the consumer resistance, brand image and prefer that is prevailing for similar products of competitors. His creativity lies in compelling away customers from compelling producers and, hence, the wholesales and dealers. They pave way for making the wholesalers and dealers to have the first priority to their organization.
These are the persons with grit, wit and initiative, self- generating capacity, aggressor and self-reliance. They have the grip over the intricacies of their line and clear insight into real needs of prospects. It is the tact, tenacity and diplomacy that makes them above average salesman justified for better payment and return.
(ii) Dealer-Servicing Salesman:
These salesmen are also known as ‘Order Collector’ or ‘Order-takers’ because they resell and render service to the wholesalers, distributors, and retailers by more performing representative work than creative one. They call on established trade at regular intervals with the major task of assuring a stock flow of reorder. Their main job is to see that the dealers are kept satisfied through regular supply of good their choice from the manufacturers and dealers effect faster sales. As they are to serve established trade-links, their work is much easier. They guide the dealers in sales-promo and answering the doubts and questions of these intermediaries as they have the first to information regarding competitive products and consumer and dealer relations. Such information is the base for the manufacturer to change his product mix accordingly.
Unlike pioneer salesmen, these order-taking salesman of manufacturers are not creative but routine and representative in their tasks. As the work is usual to represent the organization there is no stress on them as is the case with creative pioneering salesmen and, therefore, are paid commensurate with the nature of the work done. In other words, the job of the salesmen is not really thrilling and challenging and, hence, paying as that of missionary type salesmen. However, the salesmen with persistence enthusiasm, warmth, and friendly person will do well.
(iii) Merchandising Salesmen:
These salesmen are also called as sales promoter’s ‘detailers’ because they are known for gathering information regarding changing market conditions, extensive counseling to middlemen and influence the sales volume favorably, a manufacturer’s salesman, they help the dealers in accelerating their sales by understanding the variant problems of the dealers in the areas of shop location, layout, design, display, and advertising and extend their expertise in these areas that are vital to their colorful vibrant success. At the same time, they are accountable for expanding the sales of the manufacturer.
They act as a vital link between the manufacturers and the far-flung custom Their regular task is to visit the local dealers and distributions, checking up stocks of organization and replenishing the same as per the procurement cycle. These persons do in opening up a new market or markets for the known products and even introduce new pro in the existing markets.
To succeed in the line, they are to be well informed about their products and service and equipped with the adequate and variant sales literature and samples. At the same, knowledge of changing market conditions is a must. As they are to move they should have the qualities of patience, enthusiasm, tact and diplomacy.
Modesty and courtesy add extra shinning and strength to their personality. A never fading smile brings a lot.
2. Wholesaler’s Salesmen:
Wholesaler as a the major link between the manufacturers and the retailers, employed good number of effective and efficient salesmen to work for him. Here, salesmen act as the representative of the wholesaler between the manufacturers and the retailers. The customers of wholesalers are the retailers and the work of such sales people is to call on them, persuade them to stock the products or those brands imported by his wholesaler. Their work is not merely booking orders because they push the sales of items of the wholesaler. They convince the retailers to stock the new lines even in which they are not fully conversant and confident. They serve as reliable guide to the wholesaler, collect credit information about retailers and dealers, collect dues on behalf of the wholesalers and even manufacturers.
The success of such salesmen depends on their ability to build up friendly and lasting relations with retailers through punctuality, reliability, equality and courteous treatment, and hearing and adjusting the complaints. Being creative, there is scope for the qualities of imagination, vision, judgment, tact and industriousness. Honesty and integrity pay rich dividends.
3. Retailers Salesmen:
Retailers, as the last link in the chain of distribution, also employ two types of salesmen namely ‘indoor’ and ‘out door’. These are alternatively known as ‘counter’ and ‘traveling’ salesman.
i. Counter Salesmen:
Counter salesman is an employee of the retailer who sells goods to the customers across the counter. To identify a counter salesman, one need not pre-suppose the existence of a counter in a shop. There are so many small and congested retail shops where hardly there is any counter. That is, counter salesman need, not be always behind the counter to be called as the counter salesman.
ii. Traveling Salesman:
Traveling salesman is also known as ‘outdoor’ or ‘field’ salesman as he works always out of doors and is on the move. He never sticks to a place and visits the customers under the instructions of his area or branch manager. Instead of customers coming to him, he goes to the customer locations.