The plant body has two main systems the root and the shoot. The root system anchors the plant in the soil and absorps water and minerals. Roots are of two types: such as tap roots and adventitious roots. They may be modified to carry out the functions, such as storage of food, vegetative propagation, mechanical as well as vital functions.
Stems are generally negative geotropic and aerial. Stem provides support to the plants and conduct the water and minerals absorbed by roots to the leaf. It also translocates the prepared food material from the leaf to the various growing points and storage organs of plants. Besides the normal functions, modified stems perform the function of the storage of food material, vegetative propagation and other various functions such as climbing, defence and manufacture of food.
Leaf is the most vital part of the plant. It develops at the nodes. It shows different shapes, arrangements, venation, etc. Its main function is to manufacture of food material (photosynthesis) and evaporation of water transpiration. The leaf is also modified to carryout different functions like climbing, defence, providing protection to buds, etc. The outline of the leaf blade, margin and tip show wide variation. A leaf is called compound when the lamina is incised completely to form independent leaflets. A compounded leaf may be pinnate or palmate.