The process of protein synthesis is complicated and it employs following molecules and cellular organelles:
1. Amino acids
3. Non-genetic ribonucleic acids (RNAs),
4. Ribosomes and enzymes.
1. Amino acids:
Because the proteins are the polymers of amino acids, therefore, protein synthetic process requires the amino acids as the raw material. All the naturally occurring proteins of living organisms fundamentally are the polymers of about 20 amino acids. These amino acids occur in the cytoplasmic matrix forming an amino acid pool and are readily available for the process of protein synthesis.
The chromosomal, mitochondrial or chloroplastic DNA is the master macromolecule of the cell. Its immediate function is the determination of the kind of protein which a cell has to manufacture. In other words, the process of protein synthesis is initiated, guided, regulated and controlled by the DNA molecule.
3. Non-genetic ribonucleic acids:
There are three kinds of non-genetic RNAs, (i.e., rRNA), (ribosomal RNA), mRNA (messenger RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA). All these three kinds of RNAs take an active part in protein synthesis. Thus, mRNA carries coded informations for protein synthesis from DNA to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosomes; t RNAs transport activated amino acids from ‘amino acid pool’ to the site of protein synthesis, where they recognise the triplet codons of mRNA and get attached with that the lastly, rRNA though having no specific function at its disposal like mRNA and tRNA but there are ample evidences which suggest that rRNA has a general function to perform.
4. Ribosomes and enzymes:
The ribosomes play a significant role in the process of protein synthesis, as they provide the site or place to the later and they contain required amount of enzymes and protein factors (about 50 species of ribosomal proteins) which are needed time to time by protein synthetic process.