Explain the structure of vascular bundle in Helianthus Stem

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The vascular bundles are many in number, arranged in the form of a ring surrounding central pith. Each vascular bundle is conjoint (xylem and phloem combining to form a single bundle), cololateral (xylem and pholem on the same radius with x/p arrangement), open (open to secondary growth i.e., cabium is present) with endarch (protoxylem pointing towards the pith) xylem. Phloem consists of seive tubes companion cells and phloem paren­chyma. In between phloem and xylem is present cambium which is said to be intrafascicular (present within a vascular bundle).

The canlbial cells are thin walled, rectangular and actively dividing. Next to the cambium, inter­nally is the xylem, with the protoxylem facing the pith? Xylem consists of vessels, trachieds, wood fibres and xylem parenchyma. Between the vessels are found the wood parenchyma.

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