Fibre optics is a new technology that has enormously increased man’s capacity to move words, pictures and date from place to place.
The fibre optics is thin as a human hair can carry upto 8000 simultaneous telephone calls in a core just 1/200 millimeter across.
However, fibre optics is the sue of very fine transparent fibres of glass with the purpose of transmitting light. Light passes along the fibres by a series of total internal reflections. The information, transmitted through optical fibres is in digital form as pulses of light.
Through _ the optical fibres telephone conversations, television broad castes, computer data or any other rinassage can be translated into light wave and sent through techniques of translating them into electrical impulses and sending them through copper wires.
These optical fibres have various applications such as:
i. Used in ornamental displays i.e. light trees
ii. Used in examining interior organs of the body
iii. Medical instruments using fibre optics are named according to the part of the body they are designed to examine e.g.- bronchoscope (bronchial tubes), cyst scope (bladder), gastro scope (Stomach) etc.
iv. For telephone cables, glass fibres are used in place of copper wires and a pair of hair thin glass fibers carry several thousand conversations at one time, replacing several hundred wires within cable. This is resulting in enormous saving in space and money. The telephone massage first converted by a laser apparatus from electrical currents to pulses of light and then transmitted through the glass fibre and again converted back to electrical form at far end. Glass fibres are also used for high-density phone lines between major cities and for cross-channel cables. In India over 22 research institutions are engaged in various aspects of fibre optics. The Telecommunication Research Center in Delhi has developed terminal equipment for a 120- telephone channel system.