The Civil Disobedience movement went on till 1934. It promoted unity among Indians. Gandhiji worked to remove untouchability from society. He founded the Harijan Sewak Samaj. Gandhiji retired from the Congress to devote more time to social problems in Indian society. Side by side, the battle against the British for independence continued. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel led the farmers’ struggle against the British government at Bardoli.
The British government was forced to make some changes in the administration of the country. It decided to give a little power to the Indians. Elections were conducted in the provinces, so that they would have their own governments. Though Congress won in many provinces, it was not satisfied with the reforms.
The World War II broke out in 1939. England took an active part in it and also forced India into the war without the consent of Indian leaders. The Congress governments in the provinces resigned in protest. The Indian people now wanted complete independence. They asked the British to leave India immediately. The congress, under the leadership of Gandhiji, launched the Quit India Movement in 1942. People from every part of India joined the movement. Gandhiji said “Do or Die”. This meant either we get freedom or die for it. The British arrested and harassed the Indians.
Many revolutionaries also took an active part in the struggle. Subhash Chandra Bose formed the Indian National Army outside India with the help of Japan. The aim was to win freedom from British Rule. He gave the slogans Jai Hind and Dilli Chalo. The INA was trained in Germany and Singapore. The Quit India movement spread to every part of the country. The British government could not suppress the people’s movement. They felt that their military power could not match the people’s struggle, The World War II came to an end in 1945.
Now it became increasingly difficult for the British to rule over India. They had to agree to free our country, Finally on 15th August, 1947, we got independence from the British Raj. India became a free country and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as its first prime minister.
The British did not leave our country quietly. They tried to divide the Indian people on the basis of caste and religion. They asked the Muslims to work against the Hindus and vice-versa, Finally, they succeeded. At the time of independence, they divided our country into India and Pakistan.