The construction done by means of stone, brick, tile, etc is termed as masonary.
Depending upon the type of material used, masonary can be.
(a) Wall faced with stone – An exterior wall faced with stone can give a dignified and impressive look to a hotel.
Advantages of wall faced with stone
(l) Strength, durability, excelent weather resisting quality.
(ii) Shining texture.
(iii) No damping possibility.
(b) Stone masonary – Dressing of stone, selection of surface for finish setting of stone work is done.
Type of stones –
(i) Fine/coarse grained
(iv) Compact/soft sand/closed grained sand stone (York stone)
Use of abrasives and steam or diluted hydrofluoric acid is used for washing
(vi) Basal and Trap
(ix) Portland Stone
(x) Reconstructed stone – crushed stone bound with cement
(xi) Artificial stone – A core of concerete with a facing of sand and suitably coloured cement liable to develop surface cracks.
Many stone buildings are capable of being cleaned with limestone (eg. portlands and stones). Use of detergents should be avoided.
(c) Brick masonary– Brick bounded together with mortar.
Advantages of brick super structure
(i) Suitable for light ornamental work
(iii) Afford great facility in maintaining proper bond in the masonary.
(iv) Result in quick construction.
(v) For construction of jambs of doors and windows, for the walls meeting at abate/acute angle, bricks offer greater facility.
(vi) Defects of careless brick layer can be canceled by plastering.
(vii) Can be built in small thickness of 10 cm.
(viii) More fire resisting.
Disadvantages of brick super structure
(i) Less strength
(ii) Less weather resisting qualities
(iii) Plastering or pointing is necessary
(iv) Gets damp.
(v) Salts present in the sewage react chemically with exposed brick.
Defects in brick work may occur due to
(a) Sulphate attack
(b) Detoriation of mortar-moisture can sick through wall, repointing is necessary.
(c) Crystallization of salts from brick.
(d) Corrosion of embedded iron/slag
(e) Shrinkage on drying.
Types of bricks –
(a) Traditional bricks
(b) Modular bricks
(c) Reinforced bricks
(d) Composite bricks
(e) Hollow concrete blocks,
(f) Load bearing wall tiles.