The subject of water management is a matter of serious concern. Water resource management should ensure that pure water should be made available to man for various purposes and that water storage and distribution as done in scientific way. For this purpose, quantitative management of water resource can be done in the following manner:
The Himalayas are one of the important watersheds in the world. But working of watershed is paralyzed by deforestation and other ecological changes. The management of rain fall and run-off are found to depend on watersheds, may be drainage been or stream. Some organizations of the country which are involved in watershed management are mentioned as follows:
For watershed management, River valley project are cause derived to be very important.
River valley projects are used for multipurpose, countries suffering from water resource problems opt for these project. By using the several objectives are achieved. The huge single dam or a small dams, built on a river and its tributaries serve as artificial lake which is able to collect huge amount of rain water. By doing so it is helpful in control of flood and protection of soil as well.
Such collected water is then used for irrigation during dry periods of the season. The catchment areas of dam are closely populated by trees. Such an forestation provides additional wild land which help to preserve ecosystems. In addition forestation helps in avoiding setting of dams, lakes etc. The stored water in the dam is used for generation of hydro-electricity. River valley projects are considered to be cheapest means of transport for hatcheries and nurseries.
Some important dams and their uses are mentioned as follows:
1. Bhakara Nangal Project:
It is built on either side of salting river and is the highest dam in the world. It serves the purpose of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi. It will bring new areas under irrigation. Beas water is diverted into Sutlej so that longest irrigation canal in the world is Rajasthan canal can irrigate Gangbanger, Bikaner and Jaiselmer districts.
2- Damodar Valley Project:
It consists of series of small dams on the tributaries of Damodar, following from Chhotanagpur in Jharkhand to West Bengal. The Project has been developed after independence.
3. Hirakud Dam:
Dam is in Orissa, which is the longest dam in the world. Chambal project irrigates part of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Several water power projects could be implemented in different parts of the country since the year 1900. Some important projects are Tata hydro-electric scheme in Mumbai, Ankara station in Tamil Nadu, Mandi power house in Himalayan area, Rehand Project on borders of MP, UP, Koyana project in Maharashtra, Sharavathy project in Karnataka, etc.