Essay on Family Planning in India

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1. Introduction

The most crucial problem facing the Nation today is the huge population pressure. Our population is growing at the rate of 1.83 per cent, according to the Sample Registration System (SRS) in 1997.

India is the second most populous nation, after China. United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has worked that such an increase in population will have adverse effect on the existing economic and social condition of our nation.

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The birth control movement was initiated in Karnataka in 1930, even before the establishment of Family Planning Programme. Family Planning was adopted as an official programme in 1952 with the launching of First Five Year Plan.

A fully-active Department of Family Planing was created at the Centre in 1966 and the Family Planning programme was reorganized and made target oriented. During the Fourth and Fifth Plan, more stress was laid upon the programme to make it more targets oriented.

2. Measures to Promote Family Planning

Contraceptives Method

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Various factors are responsible for the acceptance and continued use of contraceptives by an individual/community such as intrinsic character of the method, social norms and acceptability, effective communication, appropriate delivery system and supply logistics.

All contraceptive methods can be classified into two categories: (a) terminal (permanent) method; (b) non-terminal (spacing) method. The former include vasectomy (male sterilization) and Tubectomy (Fe­male Sterilization) and the latter comprise cactus interuptus, rhythm method, condom, diaphragm and jelly, intra-uterine device (IUD) and oral pills.

Lippe’s loop provided the first reliable birth spacing device for women in India in 1960s. Nirodh is provided at free of cost in rural and urban areas. MALA-N pills are supplied free of cost and MALA-D at subsidised rate under social marketing scheme.

Subsidy ranging from 55-88 per cent on procurement price is being provided by the Government.

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Sterilization, beds scheme provides immediate facilities for tubectomy operation in the hospitals.

The objectives during the Ninth Plan will be to meet all the felt-needs for contraception and to reduce the infant and maternal morbidity and mortality so that there is reduction in the desired level of fertility.

The strategies during the Ninth -Plan will be to assess the needs for reproductive and child health at PHC level and undertake area-specific micro-planning, and to provide need based, demand driven high quality, integrated repro­ductive and child health care.

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