In-situ conservation is the conservation of ecosystem where all the flora, fauna and wildlife survive in tandem with nature. Development of gene sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, national parks, protected areas and reserve forests, where wildlife could grow and multiply, constitutes the vital forms of in-situ conservation.
Development of biosphere reserves (in-situ conservation) has more than one advantage, that allows natural agencies of creating variation to act unabatedly, thus the range of natural variation continues to reshuffling and replenishing the plantation is never exhausted. The reserves are instrumental n preserving much of wildlife in the vicinity of human establishments.
Approximately 42% of the total geographical area of the country has been earmarked for extensive n-situ conservation of habitats and ecosystem. A protected area network of 99 National Parks and 523 Midlife sanctuaries has been created. The results of this network have been significant in restoring population of large mammals such as tiger, lion rhinoceros, crocodiles, elephants etc. Ten biodiversity rich areas of the country have been designated as biosphere reserves.
In-situ means in the natural, original place or position, as in the location of the explants on the Mother plant prior to excision. In-situ conservation which includes conservation of plant and animals in their native ecosystems or even in manmade ecosystem, where they naturally occur
This type of conservation applies only of wild fauna and flora and not to the domesticated animals and plants, because conservation is achieved by protection of populations in nature. This method of conservation mainly aims at preservation of land races with wild relatives in which genetic exists and/or in which he weedy/wild forms present hybrids with related cultivars. These are evolutionary systems that are difficult of plant breeders to stimulate and should not be knowingly destroyed.
The in-situ conservation of habitats has received high priority in the world conservation strategy programmes launched since 1980. Institutional, arrangement, especially in countries of the developing world, have been emphasized. This mode of conservation has some limitations however, there is risk) material being lost due to environmental hazards. Further the cost of maintaining a large portion of available genotypes in nurseries or fields may be extremely high.
In-situ conservation includes a system of protected areas of different categories e.g. National parks, Sanctuaries, National Monument, Cultural landscape, Biosphere Reserves etc. One of the best methods to save wildlife species, which is on the road to extinction, is to put it in a special enclosure to reproduce. Sanctuaries and National Parks, whose legal definition varies from country to country, best illustrate this.