The death rate in India has significantly declined from 27.4 per thousand in 1941-50 to 10.8 in 1986-91. This decline in death rate is the outcome of following factors.
1. Control over famines:
In early years the high death rate was caused due to frequent occurrence of famines. During these days, there was lack of proper transported to the famine stricken areas. However, after 1921, particularly after independence, expansion of transport facilities to rural areas, proper mobilization of food grains and import of food grains to meet domestic demand, reduced the occurrence of famines.
2. Expansion of Medical Facilities :
In recent years, rapid advancement has been made in the field of medical science. Further, there has been expansion of medical facilities and public health service to control various diseases. Use of wonder medicines has controlled the deadly epidemics like cholera, plague, malaria and influenza. Consequently, the death rate has significantly declined during these days.
3. Decline in Infant Mortality:
Another important factor contributing to low death rate is the decline in infant mortality. The infant mortality rate which was 218 per thousand in 1916 – 20 had come down to 58 in 1989. Expansion of medical facilities and better child care at maternity centres have resulted in decline in infant mortality. All these factors have significantly lowered the death rate in India.