Complete information on The Satpura Range of Peninsular Uplands

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Parallel to the Vindhyas between the valleys of the Narmada in the north and that of the Tapi in the south, lies the Satpura range which extends from Ratanpur in the west to Amarkantak in the cast. It has a general ENE-WSW trend with a total length of about 900 km and average height of 770 m.

The peaks in the Mahadeo hills are over 1200 m in height (Pachmarhi 1335 m; highest point Dhupgarh 1350 m near Pachmarhi), while the Amarkantak peak is 1064 m high. Structurally the Satpura range has three parts, (i) Rajpipla hills (width 60 km) in the western part with steep slopes and pointed tops arc covered by the Deccan lava, (ii) The Mahadeo hills are composed of quartzites of the Gondwana system and pink sandstones. Here Satpuras are the broadest (120 km) and of the highest altitude (Dhupgarh near Pachmarhi 1350 m).

They have steep southern face, (iii) the eastern part consisting of Maikal range (width 200 km) with its highest point at Amarkantak (1064 m) is composed of Gondwanas and Archaean gneisses. It presents structural diversity and looks like a jumble of hills and valleys.

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According to the geologists the Maikal range forms the coast line of the ancient sea during the Cuddapah period. In Berar, the Satpuras occupy a broad zone (112-160 km wide), composed of several more or less parallel ridges of Deccan Trap lava flows. Their northern slopes are drained by the Narmada River and the southern slopes by the Wainganga, Wardha and Tapi rivers.

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