Covering an area of 16 lakh sq. km. the Peninsular Uplands form the largest physiographic division of India. With a general elevation 600-900 meters the region constitutes an irregular triangle with its concave base lying between the Delhi Ridge and the Rajmahal Hills and the apex formed by Kaiiniyakumari.
The Aravallis form its boundary in the north-west, while the Bundelkhand upland, Kaimur and Rajmahal Hills determine its northern limits. South of about 22° N latitude, the Sahyadris and the Eastern Ghats form the western and eastern edges respectively which join near the Nilgiri Hills.
The region presents a natural landscape of detached hills, summit plains, entrenched narrow as well as aggradational valleys, and series of plateaus, peneplains and residual blocks. As suggested by the Chambal, the Son and the Damodar the region first slopes to the north and the east, and thence, after the Vindhyan- Kaimur range to the west. South of the Satpura- Maikal line the general slope of the land is to the east and the south-east.
The present relief features of this region have been evolved during the course of a long and eventful geological history. This region has remained above the level of the sea for most of its history with the result that the forces of erosion have acted upon it for hundreds of millions of years. “The story of its (Peninsular) landscape consists of several cycles of denudation with orogeny, epeirogeny and cymatogeny, effusion, metamorphism of deep seated rocks, tearing, custatism and widespread resurrection (Singh, R.P., 1967, p. 145).
The fault in which the Narmada river flows divides the region into two unequal parts; the smaller one in the north being known as the Central Highlands. It is slightly tilted towards north. The southern part has been tilted east with bold heights to the west. This area is popularly known as the Deccan Plateau comprising the Satpuras, Western and Eastern Ghats and a large number of plateaus.