46 most important facts about Globalization


1. What is the essential pre-condition for the progress and unity of the Emerging Indian society?

The essential pre-condition for the progress and unity of the Emerging Indian Society is being social and national integration. The content of it consists of economic, social, cultural and political and its different facts are closely interconnected.

2. Which are those most essential steps required to promote a sense of equality of opportunity?


A continuous rise in the standard of living of the masses and the reduction in unemployment and in the disparities in development between different part of the country, all of which are essential to promote a sense of equality of opportunity in political, economic and social terms.

3. Compare traditional Indian society and Modern Indian society in term of stock of knowledge?

In a traditional society, the stock of knowledge is limited and grows slowly so that the main aim of education is interpreted to be its preservation. In a modern society, on the other-hand, the stock of knowledge is far greater and the pace of its growth is infinitely quicker.

4. How can outcomes of modernization be exploited in terms of education?


The expanding knowledge and the growing power which modernization places at the disposal of the society must, therefore, are combined with the strengthening and depending of the sense of social responsibility and a keener appreciation of moral and spiritual values.

5. What is Education Commission Report on secondary education?

At the secondary stage of education emphasis is shifted to the establishment of optimum sized institutions which tend to be more economical and efficient. In future, it may not be possible to make secondary education universal.

6. What is education commission report on the expansion of secondary education?


Efforts are needed to reduce the large imbalances now seen in the expansion of secondary education in the different parts of the country and to spread secondary education among girls, the schedule castes and the scheduled tribes in-identifying the children to be assisted in studying further at the secondary stage, ‘ability’ should not be understood in the narrow traditional sense of mean merely intellectual competence.

7. How is the development of secondary education possible? According to education commission

Locating secondary schools in a well-planned manner development plan for secondary education should be prepared separately for each district. The necessary financial assistance should be given to each school.

8. What are those steps recommended by education commission for enhancing girl’s education?


Attempts should be made for the expansion of the education of girls so that the proportion of girls to boys reaches 1:2 at the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years Emphasis should also be laid on establishing separate schools for girls.

9. What is the recommendation of education commission to improve school curriculum?

School curriculum should be upgraded through research in curriculum development undertaken by university department of education, training colleges, State Institutes of Education and Boards of School Education.

10. Give a short description about Technical education quality improvement programme (TEQIP)?


Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP) has been launched with the assistance of World Bank aims at up scaling and supporting of ongoing efforts of the Government in improving quality of technical education. The Programme has been under implementation as a centrally-coordinated multi-State long-term programme from March 2003.

11. What is Indian national commission for cooperation with UNESCO? How is it composed?

The Government set up an interim Indian National Commission for Cooperation with UNESCO (INCCU) in 1949, which was later put on a permanent footing in 1951. The Commission consists of five Sub- Commissions namely, Education, Natural Science, Social Sciences, Culture and Communication.

12. Write short notes on National Book Trust of India (NBT)?

The National Book Trust, India an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Human Resources Development, was established in 1957, publishing promotion of books and reading, promotion of Indian books abroad are main works of NBT.

13. When was copy right act started in India? Explain about its application also?

The Copyright Office was established in January 1958 to register copyright of works under different categories. As per Section 33 of the Copyright Act, the Central Government also registers copyright societies for doing copyright business the Government of India has constituted a Board to be called the Copyright Board. The Copyright Board is a quasi-judicial body consisting of a Chairman and not less than two or more than fourteen other members. The Chairman and other members of the Board are appointed for a term of five years.

14. Which are those two plan schemes started during ninth plan pertaining to copy right?

During the Ninth Plan period, two Plan Schemes namely; (i) Scheme for Financial Assistance on Intellectual Property Right Studies and (ii) Scheme of Organizing Seminars and Workshops on Copyright Matters were introduced for implementation from August 1998.

15. How is intellectual property education being boosted in India?

To give a boost to Intellectual Property Education, Research and its promotion, IPR Chairs have been established in 16 Institutions including law colleges, management and technical institutions and university teaching departments.

16. What kind of relationship does India held with WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organizations)?

India is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WPO), a specialized agency of the United Nations which deals with copyright and other intellectual property rights and plays an important role in all its deliberations.

17. Which are those five categories of education proposed for negotiation in the meeting of WTO?

Education is one of the twelve services, which are to be negotiated under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Education has been divided into five categories for the purposes of Negotiations: Higher Education, Secondary Education, Primary Education, Adult Education and Other Education.

18. Give the description of Institutions which are contributing well on the field of R &D in India?

Institutional structures, with their research laboratories, are the main contributors to research and development being carried out in the country. Notable among these are: the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

19. What is science and technology policy 2003 of Government of India? Explain.

Government has announced the Science and Technology Policy 2003. The policy outlines the approach to S & T governance, optimal utilization of existing physical and knowledge resources, development of innovative technologies, systems and technologies for mitigation and management of natural hazards, generation and management of intellectual property and creation of awareness amongst general masses about the use and benefits of science and technology.

20. How does science & technology department function? Give short description.

Over the years, the S & T Department has evolved policy statements and guidelines, provided mechanisms for co-ordination in the areas of science and technology in which a number of institutions have interests and capabilities, supported grants-in-aid to scientific institutions and professional bodies. The Department has played a catalytic and coordinating role and in this process over the past few years.

21. What is science & engineering research council? How this is composed (constituted)?

For research support, is provided through Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) – an advisory body consisting of eminent scientists and technologists drawn from academic institutions like NTs, universities, national laboratories and industry. The Council through its advisory committees assists the Department not only in peer reviewing the proposals but also identifies newer and inter­disciplinary areas of R & D for concerted efforts.

22. Write a short note upon the program “Nano materials Science & Technology Initiative?

A national programme titled “Nanomaterials Science and Technology Initiative (NSIT)” has been started. The programme focuses at overall research and development in nanoscience and technology with vigour so that Indian can become a significant player in the area and contribute to the development of new technologies. Nano Sand Technology Mission is proposed to be launched in 2005-06.

23. What kind of help has ‘Intensification of Research in High priority areas’ rendered in the field of Science & Technology?

“Intensification of Research in High Priority Areas’-IRHPA has helped in strengthening the infrastructure and research capabilities in selected areas of science and engineering. Under this programme, units/ core groups and National Research Facilities are established around an outstanding scientist to act as a focal point to nucleate research activity in these areas.

24. How is Science & Technology Infrastructure funded?

Fund or Improvement of S & T Infrastructure in Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (FIST) was initiated during the Ninth Five Year Plan. Under this programmed support is provided for up gradation of laboratories by providing equipment, computer networking, library facilities, etc.

25. Focus upon the sponsored programmes of Department of Science & Technology?

The DST supports different programmes aimed at identifying new talent and providing them with financial assistance in the form of fellowships for pursuing research in front-line areas of science and technology. Also, for the researchers, the Department supports training programmes, summer schools and contact programmes.

26. What is the main objective of TIFAC (Technology Information Forecasting & Assessment Council)?

The Department has set up an autonomous body – Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC). The main objectives of TIFAC include generation of Technology Forecasting and Technology Assessment and Techno Market Survey (TMS) documents and enabling a Technology Information System.

27. Give the description of’ Technology vision for India upto 2020′?

TIFAC carried out a long term Technology Vision (Forecasting) exercise known as “Technology Vision for India up to 2020, covering 17 sectors important to Indian economy. The reports five realistic technology road maps for achieving desired goals as well as intermediate milestones.

28. What is mission ‘REACH’?

Mission REACH has been launched by TIFAC with the objective of upgrading a few selected sciences and engineering colleges so as to create Centres of Relevance and Excellence (CORE) in achieving new heights in selected departments at par with the world are best.

29. Focus upon TEPP (Technopreneur Promotion Programme)?

To promote innovation among entrepreneurs, a new golden jubilee initiative called “Technopreneur Promotion Programme (TePP)” has been initiated. The main thrust of TePP is to tap the vast untapped innovative potential of the Indian innovators.

30. Why is National Innovation Foundation of India established? What is its main motive?

To encourage grass-root innovators National Innovation Foundation (NIF) of India has been established with the main goal of providing institutional support in scouting, spawning, sustaining and scaling up grassroots green innovations and helping their transition to self supporting activities.

31. What kind of support has the department of Science & Technology rendered in development of ‘Drugs and Pharmaceuticals’?

The Department of Science and Technology under its scheme on ‘Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Research’ supports collaborative Research and Development projects jointly submitted by drug companies and the academics national R&D institutes. The programme aims towards the development of new drugs and cleaner processing technologies for known drugs/key intermediates for drugs.

32. What is ‘Technology Development Board?

The Technology Development Board was constituted in September 1996. The Board provides financial assistance to industrial concerns and other agencies for attempting development and commercial application of indigenous technology or adapting imported technology for wider domestic application.

33. Write about ‘National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories’?

The National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) has been registered as a society on 12 August 1998 under Societies Registration Act. NABL continued its activity of according accreditation to testing and calibration laboratories after thorough assessment by the experts. NABL has received international recognition based on International Peer Review.

34. Give a short description about ‘National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board’?

The National Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB), established in January 1982 has been implementing several schemes and programmes on promotion of entrepreneurship and creation of sustainable employment through the application of S&T.

35. When was the Science & Technology entrepreneurship parks established? What was the main motive of gov. behind it?

Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Parks (STEPs) have been set up in and around different S&T institutions in the country in order to provide facilities to existing as well as start-up entrepreneurs on technology development, testing and calibration, documentation and computation, training, etc.

36. What was the principal motive of national resources data management programme? When was it launched?

The Natural Resources Data Management programme is being implemented to upgrade the existing data management methodologies at the district level to facilitate decision making process with regard to local area management and development. Launched in 1982-83, the programme involves several R&D institutes of national repute, universities and non-governmental agencies in a consortium mode.

37. Write a short note upon the function of ‘National Council for Science & Technology Communication’?

The National for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), ever since its inception some 18 years ago, has been engaged in science and technology communication/popularisation and inculcation of scientific temper among the people. The emphasis has been on the development, adaptation, promotion and use of different communication technologies and techniques utilizing various media- traditional and non-traditional.

38. What is Department of Atomic energy?

The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), established on 3 August 1954, has been engaged in the development of nuclear power technology, application of radiation technologies in the field of agriculture, medicine, industry, and basic research.

39. How does department of atomic energy function to promote research and development?

Support to basic research in nuclear energy and related frontier areas of science, Interaction with universities and academic institutions; Support to research and development projects having a bearing on DAE’s programmes, and International cooperation in related advanced areas of research.

40. Focus upon 3-stage nuclear power programme being carried on by DAE?

The DAE has been pursuing a 3-stage Nuclear Power Programme. Its first stage comprises setting up of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and associated fuel cycle facilities; the second stage envisages setting up of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) backed by reprocessing plats and plutonium- based fuel fabrication plants; the third stage will be based on the thorium-233 cycle.

41. Write short note upon the history of Indian nuclear power programme?

The Indian Nuclear Power Programme took off in the sixties. Though, PHWR was the reactor of choice for the first stage of the programme. However, to gain operational experience, initially an atomic power station consisting of two boiling water reactors (BWR), was set up at Tarapur, Maharashtra. The station, commissioned in 1969, is still in operation.

42. What does ISRO contribute in the field of R&D now-a-days?

ISRO has an active programme to interact with academic and research institutions all over the country for the benefit of our space programme. In this regard, the Sponsored Research Programme (RESPOND) is an important component of DOS. Under RESPOND, DOS supports research and educational activities at universities, individual colleges, and at the Indian Institutes of Technology as well as other research institutions.

43t Give the description about (ISRO) research space organization’s relationship with International

Community in the field of Research and Development

ISRO has had a very good record of international cooperation. It has Memorandum of Understanding with 25 countries/space agencies. A UN sponsored Center for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTE-AP) set up in India.

ISRO has launched scientific payloads of other space agencies like Modular Opto-electronic Scanner of DLR, Germany which was flows on IRS-P3 spacecraft and the data is being shared by scientists of DLR, India and the US. It has a cooperative agreement with NASA/NOAA for the reception of methodologies data from INSAT spacecraft by those agencies.

44. What is Private Universities (Establishment and Regulation) Bill?

It was the first step towards privatisation of higher education in India. This Bill was introduced to provide for establishment of self financing private universities in the country and to control their functioning by enacting an enabling law on the subject. Such universities could play a supportive role to the state-run universities in the tertiary education sector.

45. What is ‘GRAMSAT’?

Using INSAT series of satellites, innovative interactive training programmes are being regularly conducted in various states in the following areas: training for farmers, education in rural development with programmes on development of women and children, in rural areas watershed development, programmes on Panchayati Raj for elected women members, GRAMSAT. The concept of dedicated GRAMSAT satellites has evolved keeping in mind the urgent need to eradicate illiteracy in the rural belts, necessary for the all-round development of the nation. The GRAMSAT will also assist in providing continuing education for special groups to ensure that their technical skills are periodically updated to overcome technological obsolescence.

46. What is ‘Scientific Policy Resolution’?

S&T development in India owes to a series of policy instruments enunciated by the Parliament, such as “Scientific Policy Resolution (SPR)” which emphasises the Governments responsibility to foster, promote and sustain by all appropriate means, the cultivation of science and scientific research in all its aspects – pure, applied and educational.

The policy envisages the well-planned effort for promoting the growth of science and technology personnel on a scale adequate to satisfy the nation’s needs in areas of agriculture, education, industry and defence.

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