India’s Rural Social Transformation – Essay



Here is your essay on the India’s Rural Social Transformation !

Rural transformation signifies major shift in rural formation. Rural transformation may be defined as process of transition which signifies a major shift in the entire rural formation.

Transformation in rural context denotes the successive changing patterns conceived in rural set, in its structure, fact, form and character, both in positive and negative direction.

In sociology, the concept of rural transformation has been interpreted as a concrete process of restructuration in society, conceived as rural. Yogendra Singh writes that the pace of social restructuration, the emergence of new classes and decline of traditional cultural institutions exemplify the phenomenon of contemporary transformation in rural India.

The scenario of transition in rural society, specially in post-independence era suggests that the process of planned development has transformations in rural society. The changes in rural India have brought about a process of rapid social restructuration. It is leading to a breakdown in the segmentary mode of social change.

It has resulted in rise of new middle class to power. There has been massive use of science and technology in agriculture. Substantial changes in values and beliefs are also taking place in rural India.

The green revolution signifies not merely growth in agricultural production but also the use of new technology and social relationship in production process. These developments make the new phase of changes in rural economy and society a distinct process.

A new interaction among technology, social relationship and culture is now taking place in the rural society. This has resulted in social mobility, emergence of new power structure and mode of exploitation of the deprived classes.

The major trends of rural transformation in post-independence era may be discussed as under:

1. The transition of agrarian society from subsistence base to market based agrarian sector.

2. The introduction of modern technology and devices to transform the underdeveloped colonial agrarian economy into a, well knit compact one and its organic integration into the total national economy.

3. Emergence of power blocks which try to work within Constitutional frame using a combination of protests through mass action, appeals to bureaucracy and courts and even lobbying in centers of power.

4. State interventions in adopting different measures to strengthen certain communities, groups or classes on the one hand and weaken others, on the other.

5. Emergence of dominant group like neo-rich peasants, intermediary castes etc. and their tightened hold over avenues of political power.

Socially, the green revolution has been basically a contribution of middle class peasantry who have had traditionally a strong attachment to land and agriculture as mode of life and livelihood. The Jats, Kurmis, Yadavas in North; the Patels and Patidars in Gujarat; the Kammas Reddis and Rajus in Andhra Pradesh have been the leaders of green revolution.

The green revolution has led to the consolidation of the status of the middle peasantry as a dominant of class. But the rural poor too have got more organized. They too have now youthful leadership which deals with agencies of development, political parties and institutions of law and order.

The upper caste-class groups which traditionally dominated have now been either replaced by the middle peasantry or have to compete with them to maintain their traditional status and power. The quality of the relationship between the middle caste peasantry and the lower castes has particularly declined and is marked by exploitation and violation.

The relationship of peasantry caste with the agricultural working classes, the lowest castes and the Hanjans is increasingly that of aggressiveness and antipathy. This is being reciprocated by the lower castes and working classes as well, leading to a sharp decline in the cultural ethos of rural society.

A situation is emerging in which the dominant classes do not take kindly to policies of protective discrimination and the weaker sections do not accept the legitimacy of such reform measures. The result is conflict and fewer consensuses on social issues. This happens when more and more mobility and development is taking place.

In this process, mixed blessings for society are seen in general. It indicates a remarkable process of restructuration and social mobility. It reflects the rise of an economic ethic which is productive and generates surpluses and capital accumulation. Various development, however, also coincide with negative social process.

A change in the value system and ideology of the people which promotes localism, casteism and communalism has taken place. This results into conflictual and exploitive relationship between the peasant classes and the rural poor. Thus, social changes also have brought about conflict and maladjustment in the structure of society.