Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

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Introduction:

Participation in sports always increases the risk of sports related injuries (Sports Injuries) and very potential if the sport is a field game where there is a high risk of injuring the lower limbs.

Anterior cruciate ligament injury most commonly found in athletes, wrestlers, judo, foot ball, hockey, Skiing and cricket players. Anterior cruciate ligament Provides anterior stability to the knee joint by preventing the femur and tibia bones sliding forward from the knee compartment. The most common cause of ACL tear or rapture is traumatic force being applied to the knee in a twisting moment.

This can occur with either a direct or an indirect force. Delay in diagnosis and treatment gives rise to increased intra-articular damage as well as stretching of secondary stabilizing capsular structures.Intially the injured person will complain of severe pain, Swelling, decreased joint ROM, inability to bear weight on the affected leg and giving out sensation in the joint which makes the person very apprehensive.

The diagnosis of the ACL injury can be confirmed by three tests: the Lachman test, the dynamic extension test and pivot jerk test. Depending upon the result of clinical tests the injury can be classified as complete and partial injury.

Severe injuries may be corrected by surgical intervention like arthroscopy and prosthetic ligament replacement. Rehabilitation and physiotherapy has a key role to play in this type of injuries either the person managed conservatively or surgically.

Good quadriceps and Hamstring muscle strengthening exercises provides some sort of stability to knee joint and prevent the joint from forward sliding .pain reliving modalities like icing initially, application of TENS, IFT, SWD and Ultra Sound therapy will help the person to combat with pain and increase ROM of the affected Joint.

Conclusion:

ACL Injuries may cause short-term and long-term disability correct diagnosis and early symptomatic treatment in the form physiotherapy and rehabilitation will decrease the intra- articular complications like secondary osteoarthritis, tearing of meniscus, Muscle wasting and joint stiffness ect. Which are associated with ACL injuries.

By

Mohammed Amjad Khan

(Physiotherapist), Hyderabad,

India


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