11 Short Questions and Answers on Geography of India



11 Short Questions and Answers on Geography of India

1. How is it said that India has made remarkable progress after independence?

India belongs to one of the ancient civilisation of the world.

i. It has made multifaceted socioeconomic progress after obtaining independence in 1947.

ii. It has excelled many countries of the world in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development.

iii. It has contributed a lot in the world history.

2. Explain the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India both of mainland and Indian Union.

India lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.

i. The main land of India extends between 8° 4' N and 37° 6' N latitudes and between 68° 7' E and 97° 25' E longitudes.

ii. Addition of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep, to the main land makes it the Indian Union.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to south-east and south-west of the mainland in the Bay of Bengal.

The Lakshadweep Island lies in the Arabian Sea.

Extents of these Island groups are:

Andaman and Nicobar Island:

Latitudinal extent = 6° 45' N to 14° N

Longitudinal extent = 92° E to 94° E

Lakshadweep Islands:

Latitudinal extent = 8° N to 12° 3' N

Longitudinal extent = 71° E to 74° E

The southernmost p6int of the Indian Union is Indira Point 6° 45' N passes through the Indira Point. Hence the exposé of the Indian Union is from 6° 45' N to 37° 6' N and from 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E. Indira Point got submerged in the sea water on Dec. 26, 2004 during Tsunami. But it has again emerged and is visible.

3. Mention the length and breadth of India.

The landmass of India spreads over an area of 3.28 million s kms.

Its length is about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes.

Its breadth is 2,933 km from west to east between the two extreme longitudes

i. India's land boundary is about 15,200 km long.

ii. Total length of the coast line of mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.

4. Explain Indian Union and Indian mainland.

Indian Union :

Indian Union refers to the Federation of India, comprising 28 States and 7 Union Territories.

Indian Mainland:

Indian mainland refers to the continuous stretch of landmass from Jammu and Kashmir to Kanyakumari and from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh.

5. Describe the boundaries of India.

India is bounded by the Young Fold Mountains in the north-west, north, and north-east.

i. It is situated on the northern fringe of the Indian Ocean.

ii. South of about 22° N latitude.

It begins to tapper and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas:

The Arabian Sea on the west, and

The Bay of Bengal on its east.

6. India is neither a giant nor a pygmy in the world. Comment on this statement.

i. India's total area is about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. From Fig. 1.6, it is concluded that Russia is the largest country of the world. Then comes China, Canada, USA, Brazil and Australia in the descending order of area.

ii. It is another of great interest that India is not a pygmy. It is:

i. Sixth time bigger than France.

ii. Nine time than Germany.

iii. Twenty three times than Bangladesh.

7. Discuss India and its land routes. India and the Land Routes

i. India continued its relation with the world through the ages.

ii. Its relationship through the land routes are much older than its relationship through sea routes.

iii. Various passage across the mountain in the north provided land routes to the ancient travellers.

iv. Fertile river valleys of India helped in the spread of pastoral nomads.

8. Describe the contribution of India's contacts with the oriental world.

i. India remained busy in the exchange of ideas and commodities since time immemorial.

ii. India's contacts with West Asia, East Asia, Central and South Asia are noteworthy.

Buddhism travelled from India to Tibet, China and as far as Japan and Korean Peninsula.

Mongols, the Turks, the Arabs and the Upanishads, the Indian numeral and the decimal system reached many parts of the world as a result of these contacts.

9. Distinguish between local time and standard time.

Distinction between Local Time and Standard Time

Local Time

Standard Time

1. Local time is the time of a longitude.

2. Local time within the country varies from one longitude to another.

3. The local times of the westernmost tip and easternmost tip of India vary by 2 hours.

1. The local time of a central longitude of a country assumed to be of the whole country is termed as Standard Time.

2. Standard Time remains the same throughout the country on all longitudes.

3. The local time of 82° 30' E (Indian Standard Meridian) is the Standard Time of India (1ST).

10. Define the subcontinent. Name countries which constitute the Indian subcontinent.


A subcontinent is a part of a continent, separated from the rest of the continent by natural features such as mountains and rivers. It has its own specific climatic characteristics and a distinct cultural identity.

Countries constituting the Indian subcontinent: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Maldives.

11. Why do we need a standard meridian for India? Explain.

India is situated from west to east in about 30 longitudes. It takes 4 minutes to cross a longitude (24 hours -r 360 longitudes). India is situated between 67° E to 97° E (approximately). Hence, there is a two hours' difference in the timings of the westernmost extremity and the easternmost extremity.

If there is no standard meridian (longitude) in India, we have to advance our watch by 4 minutes on each longitude, if we travel from west to east. In order to avoid the problem we have chosen 82° 30' E as standard meridian and its local time is taken a standard throughout the country.