21 Short Questions and Answers on Pastoralism in the Modern World
(i) Mountains: Gujjars Bakarwala, Gaddi's.
(ii) Plains and Plateau: Dhangars, Banjaras.
(iii) Desert Region: Raikas.
(i) Jammu and Kashmir,
(ii) Himachal Pradesh,
(iv) Uttar Pradesh,
(i) Himachal Pradesh
(ii) Jammu and Kashmir.
Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Shepherds Jammu and Kashmir: Gujjar Bakarwals
Pastoral communities that lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were:
(ii) Kurumas, and
The pastoral communities of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka herded cattle, raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Of them the Kurumas and Kurubas lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land and indulged in a variety of petty trades.
The Gujjar herders originally came from the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In the 19th century search for pastures brought them to hills of Uttar Pradesh.
The Gujjar herders in winters came down to the dry, forests of the bhabar and in summers they went up to the high meadows i.e., the bugyals.
Banjaras a well-known group of graziers were found in
(iv) Madhya Pradesh, and
They were nomadic and mainly graziers and sold plough, cattle, and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.
9. Who are Raikas, where are they found?
(i) Raikas are a nomadic community found in the deserts of Rajasthan. (ii) They are pastoralists and cultivators.
10. Why are the Raika community both pastoralists and cultivators?
The uncertainty and meagre rainfall in the desert region leading to fluctuating harvests made the Raikas combine both cultivation and pastoralism as means of occupation.
11. Why did pastoral communities move from place to place?
Pastoral communities moved from place to place in search of pastures for their cattle.
12. Give any one change that occurred in Maasai society during colonial rule.
During colonial rule the traditional difference based on age between elders and warriors was disturbed and a new distinction between wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.
13. How did the British seek to administer the affairs of the Maasai?
To administer the Maasai the British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai. They were made responsible for tribal affairs and imposed restrictions on warfare and raids.
14. Give names of any two pastoral communities of Africa.
(i) Bedouins (ii) Berbers.
15. Give two factors for pastoral communities being nomadic.
Pastoral communities are nomadic because:
(i) It enables them to survive bad times and avoid crisis in difficult terrain.
(ii) Continuous movement is also because of exhaustion of pasture and there insurability.
16. What does the word Maasai mean? Where are they found?
The word Maasai means 'My People'. It is derived from the word 'Maa. Maasai's are found primarily in East Africa: 3,00,000 in Southern Kenya and 1,50,000 in Tanzania.
17. How did poor Maasai pastoralists survive war and famines?
During war, famines and other bad times the poor Maasai pastoralists searched for work in the towns as charcoal burners, at road and building construction sites to make a living.
18. Give names of one game reserve in
(i) Kenya (ii) Tanzania.
Samburu National Park/Maasai Mara
19. What was the Grazing Act? Or why did the pastoralists hate the Grazing Act?
By the Grazing Act, the British levied tax on the pastoralists, on every animal they took to pastures to graze. It was hated by the impoverished pastoral community for it's was contrary to their customary rights.
The British considered traders, craftsmen and pastoralists to be criminal by nature. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed so that they could identify and control these communities.
Pastoral Nomadism is a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals. Under this people do not live in one place but move from one place to another along with their animals in search of fresh grazing areas.