After the scientific and industrial revolution in the recent past, there has been immense impact of man on his environment. Man has failed to realise that any new factor upsets the balance of the ecosystem as a whole/the environment.
Huge industrial installations every year, introduction of the faster mode of transport, sprouting up large crowded cities (urbanisation), changing the food habits, deforestation and decreasing the agricultural land, the main outcomes of the modern civilization: wide spread use of insecticides, pesticides, improper use of fertilizers and chemicals in environment are some others contributing factors which challenged the life of man, animals specially birds and other organisms.
Industries are causing much danger to man's life (causing air pollution), Similarly water pollution, soil pollution, marine pollution, noise pollution, global warming, effects of nuclear hazards etc. are some major factors for which public awareness is necessary.
The Active co-operation of every one, at every level of social organizations, scientist- educationists, social workers, politicians, administrators and public is needed for issues concerning environment. Individuals collectively make a society or a state.
Movements, which begin at gram root levels, effects the ideologies and policies of a country or the nation as a whole more effectively than the policies introduced from top to downwards.
When the opinion of the public will change, ii will affect the govt. policies, which transform in to actions. Therefore little efforts on the part of each individual shall add up to introduce significant improvements of the environment.
Over exploitation of natural resources is a basic concern for everybody. Food shortage we increase in frequency and severity if population growth, soil erosion and nutrient depletions we continue at the existing rate. Therefore, it is our duty and we can accept the family planning schemes this will not only reduce the population but also solve the problems of food and rehabilitation.
Burning fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas), we release carbon-dioxide and other heat absorbing; gases, that cause global warming and may bring about sea level rise and catastrophic climatic changes.
Acid rain is the result of it. Chlorinated compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigerator and air conditioner also contribute to global warming as well as damaging the stratospheric ozone that protect us from cancer causing ultraviolet radiations in sunlight.
Now a day's everybody talks about environment but how many of us are serious about it. How many of us (from all walks of life) have clear concepts of environment. There must be planning about the effects and control measures of environmental pollution. Govt. should initiate and help by awareness campaigns to save environment.
There should not be the political propaganda but should be the integral part of our educational programmes. By writing on walls the word "save water", "save oil" is not enough for Govt. or people.
We should opt some programmes relating to it. We should discourage to use fuel vehicles, until it is not necessary. For short routes, we should use bicycle; on foot. We should accompany the four seated or so with others over use of water, for cleaning and other purposes should be decreased.
Rain water harvesting is another example for using the rain water instead flowing out. Any government at its own level cannot achieve the goals of sustainable development until the public has a participatory role in it.
It is only possible only when public aware about the ecological and environmental issues. For example ban the littering of polythene cannot be successful until the public understands the environmental implications of the same.
Public should understand about the fact that if we degrading our environment, we are harming ourselves. This is the duty of we educated people to educate the others about the adverse effect of environment.
For the first time, the attention of general public was attracted at global level when "Earth Summit" in 1992 was held in Rio de Janerio on environment and development. Later on another world summit on "Sustainable Development" at Johannesburg in 2002 was also held to discuss the environment and aware the public to save the environment.
In these directions, United Nations has organised several conferences in different parts of the world (Stockholm 1972, Vienna 1985, Montreal 1987, Brazil 1992 etc) to work out the action plan from time to time for fighting with menace of environmental pollution. We should keep the earth green and alive as it provides shelter, food and protective cover.
The soil degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, losing wetlands, land conversion etc. are the measure issues which force ourselves to think and aware the public in this regard. Because human himself is responsible for these environmental deterioration. Therefore, it is necessary to check all these destructive processes. Govt. also doing some efforts on national level but still much more has to be done.
The marine ecosystem includes the oceans, seas, sea shores, bays and summaries of the world. The physical factors like wares, tides, currents, salinities, temperature, pressures and sunlight dominate life in the ocean and determine the makeup of biological communities.
These communities have significant effect on biomass, leakage from oil tankers, oil drilling, catchment area (coastline) and rivers polluted the sea water, which effects sensitive flora and fauna, various species of invertebrate, mammals, coral reps, fishes and other organisms.
A Diesel vehicle emits particles in their exhaust which have a diameter less than 10 microns (PH-10). It is easily inhaled. Any amount of these particles in the air is dangerous for health (particularly effects lungs). In India about 20 million people are asthmatics.
Mine waste and effluents from mining and metallurgical industries give a number of physical and chemical problems to human beings. Certain other industries like paper and pulp industries, fertilizer industries, explosive industries, soap and detergent industries, chemical industries, food processing industries, textile, tannery, leather, and petroleum industries release/discharge undesirable and harmful constituents which are responsible for air and water pollution, causes great public concern.
Sewage begins to cause nuisance as it starts to become stale. It is therefore necessary to dispose it off as soon as possible. Proper methods of disposal and its treatment should be applied otherwise causes the chronic diseases. When sewage is applied continuously on a part of land, the pores or voids of the soil are clogged and free circulation of air is prevented.
As a result anaerobic conditions are developed in place of aerobic conditions and the land is not capable of taking further sewage load. At this stage, decomposition of sewage takes place and offensive gases are produced. This is called the sewage sickness of land. People should aware of it.
The noise which is increasing pollution is one of the important factors of environment due to population's explosion, rapid industrializations and urbanisations. We should know the consequences of noise pollutions. Ear drum can be damage when exposed to very loud and sudden noise. Noise pollution affects human health, comfort and efficiency.
It causes contraction of blood vessels, high blood pressure, mental distress, high cholesterol, heart attacks, neurological problems, birth defects, abortion etc. The department of environment realised the importance of creating a sound research base for scientific studies relating to environmental problems. Environmental protection act was introduced in 1976 as the 42nd amendment act in the constitution.
Only by celebrating "World Environmental Day" we cannot get rid of this concern. Govt. along cannot do anything until unless every citizen is aware of the environmental pollution & their effects. This is the time to make aware and motivate each and every individual for environmental consciousness.