Environment consists of all living and non living things which surround us. Therefore the basic components of the environment are:
1. Atmosphere or the air
2. Hydrosphere or the water
3. Lithosphere or the rocks and soil
4. The biosphere
Environment influence and shaped our life. It is from the environment that we get food to eat, water to drink, air to breathe and all necessities of day to day life are available from our environment. Thus it is the life support system. Hence the scope & importance of the environment can be well understood.
The basic concepts of environmental studies are interesting and important too not only to the scientist's engaged in various fields of science and technology but also to the personnel involved in resource planning and material management. It is now universally realised that any future developmental activities have to be viewed in the light of its ultimate environmental impact.
The tremendous increase in industrial activity during the last few decades and the release of obnoxious industrial wastes in to the environment, have been considerable concern in recent years from the point of view of the environmental pollution.
Environmental pollution on one hand and deforestation, soil erosion, population explosion, global warming inference in ecosystem and biosphere on the other are threatening the very existence of life on the earth.
According to ManTech 1970 environmental science attempts to solve the major environmental problems with the help of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches i.e., the entire knowledge of all the disciplines of science such as Math's, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology, Geography, Computer Science, Medical Science and Biotechnology, as well as of social sciences such as Economics Sociology and Psychology. Because, Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies. Some Major Problems/Issues to be addressed in Environmental Science Biodiversity Conservation. Resource Recovery, Waste Disposal and Treatment.
Air, Water, Soil, Noise and Marine Pollution Environmental Ethics and Awareness Global Climate Change and Water Scarcity <- Computer Simulation and Analysis. Population Explosion, Urbanisation, Land use -4- Human Resource and Sustainable Development. Energy Crisis and Non-conventional Sources.
Globalisation and World Trade -4- Global Environmental Problems -4- Modeling and Management of Resources Power Generation, Dams and Techno sphere -4-Disease, Drug Abuse and AIDS. Toxic Chemicals, Pesticides and Radioactivity -4- Resource Depletion, Deforestation Specific Problems of Various Habitats -4- (e.g. Problems of Aquaculture)Perturbations of Biogeochemical Cycles -4-Major Thrust Areas/Contributions made by Disciplines of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Geography.
Medical Science Ecophysiology and Ecotoxicology Ecology/Environmental Biology Life Science/Bioscience/Biology Microbiology and Biotechnology. Ethics, Behavioral Science and Literature. Computer Science and Information Technology Social Sciences. Management Science and Environmental Law.
Mathematics Engineering. Atmospheric, Ocean and Space Science. Meteorology and Telecommunication environmental science is a subject which draws heavily from environmental biology, but depends more on transdisciplinary approach. Since, ecology, environmental biology and environmental science cannot be defined without reference to environment; they show too much overlapping which is inevitable and unavoidable.
Environment is responsible for creating conditions suitable for the existence of a healthy biosphere on this planet. The load of pollutant discharged is also diluted and chemically modified. It regulates the temperature on earth where life activities are possible. Harmful ultraviolet radiations are absorbed in the stratosphere by the vital ozone layer.
These rays can severely damage the terrestrial life. The atmosphere of our environment is a quick and effective media for transfer, transport and dissemination of gaseous wastes.
There are some natural and spontaneous process in our environments, by which we get plentiful supply of clean, air, fresh water and fertile soils, which rerate endlessly by biogeochemical cycles. Our planet which is rich in biodiversity have millions of species including beautiful, intriguing, towering trees and other coral nets where all types of animals live together.
All animals depend on plants for their food & plants on animals. Insects, bacteria, virus and other organisms are one hand harmful somewhere but very helpful on the other. For example, pollination, regeneration etc. are some examples.
Since life is dependable upon the environment, its absence causes many adverse and harmful effects. Many countries are facing the problems of environmental pollutions. Without sustainable environment and natural resources, one cannot survive.
Over-exploitation of natural resources and pollution of environment are corroding the vital life support systems on which all life depends.
Air, water, soil, noise, marine pollutions, food adulterations, decreasing agricultural land, extinction of various plants of mammals global warming etc. are some factors which are making our life more and more difficult. The future of entire humanity is at stake.
Instead of these some environmental problems are also there like, solid waste management mining impact, impacts of hydro-electric projects effects of nuclear hazards and effects of industrial effluents. These problems should also have some solutions, because their effects are very dangerous.
Therefore, environmental aspect should be in mind while planning for industries, township and other research institutions/health centers. Modern technologies should be developed to reduce the pollution at every step.
Modern technologies for effluent treatment and cleaning/washing should be used. Environmental studies is very important for getting clean drinking water, hygienic living conditions, clean and fresh air, fertile land, healthy food etc.