A Thesis on: Linguistic Violence on Women in Bhojpuri Songs

Acknowledgements

Firstly, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my Supervisor Mr. Hem Raj Kafle for agreeing to supervise my study. He guided me through difficulties and confusions and helped bring my first-ever research attempt to this shape. I would like to acknowledge Sancharika Samuh, Kathmandu, Nepal for providing this fellowship.

Secondly, I would like to thank all the faculty members of Department of Languages & Mass Communication, Kathmandu University, for their continuous support. Their teaching has helped me with this project in one way or the other. I would like to remember the supports of all my class fellows and friends of Kathmandu University.

Abstract

This paper is based on an empirical study of Bhojpuri songs of India. Songs concern female, her physical attractiveness, her sexual organs and her purity. It is a critical analysis of Bhojpuri songs that deal with Linguistic Violence against women, her self-respect and her whole identity. The portrait of women as depicted in these songs is often at variance with the real women of Terai region of Nepal and India. This paper highlights the linguistic violence against women through various metaphors to describe her sexual organs, and an attempt to show the real women of that area.

Introduction:

This research portrays women as described in Bhojpuri songs. The Bhojpuri songs chiefly describe the women and their physical Structure in their lyrics. Nevertheless, other strong positive characters are also described in the Bhojpuri songs. Even though the latter types of songs are coming out in the market, their circulation is lower than that of former type.

Bhojpuri songs are popular cultural artifacts in the southern border of Nepal. But the Bhojpuri region is a cultural entity that transcends political borders. The area comprises the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and the western part of Bihar in India, and Terai region of Nepal. In the north, it reaches across the river Ganges and past the Nepal border, up to the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Champaran to Basti.

In the south, it crosses the Sone River and covers the great plateau of Chotanagpur, where it finds itself in contact with the Bengali of Manbhum, the Oriya of Singhbhum, and the scattered tribal languages of the Chotanagpur plateau. The area covered by Bhojpur is some fifty thousand square miles in India; more than 15 per cent of the total Indian population speaks Bhojpuri. Bhojpuri is spoken in north Bihar & UP, and the Terai region of Nepal. And it is also spoken in Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, British Guyana, and Uganda, as well as in Burma. There are to a greater extent that 15 million Bhojpuri speaking people in Bihar, alone. Bhojpuri has helped much to the development of eastern literature. Although, Bhojpuri has no such old written literature as Maithili the love with which its talkers treasure is just as large."(Biharonline.com).

Bhojpuri community falls under ancient Mithila, the Kingdom of Janak & it capital was Janakpurdham, the birthplace of Janaki (Sita), and at present falls under Dhanusha district of Nepal. Tiwari , B.D observes that "Bhojpuri culture is not different from Maithili cultures. This folk culture is represented in many forms, such as nautanki (musical theatre), dramas, folk songs, festivals and folk paintings. We can say that it is a complete folk culture, or holistic folklore tradition, which developed as an outcome of the vacuum caused by the departure of the migrant. Bhojpuri folk songs began after the year 1837, when migration began. Since very little folk tradition was written or published, it is difficult to fix the exact time period."

The purpose of the research is to observe the linguistic violence in the Bhojpuri songs and it is relevant in many grounds. It partly aims to reflect the picture of Bhojpuri culture, people, music, and society. In the study, all the songs that provoke the negative feelings such as, rejection, disapproval, pessimism, dehumanization, insecurity, restriction, violence and regress; and negative traits such as unsuccessful, incomplete, bad, violence, weak, and arrogance are considered to be the components of linguistic violence.

Though, the study is more focused on linguistic violence, it is also worthwhile to define positiveness in the songs. Some of the songs provoking positive traits such as success, agreeable, love, sacred, graceful, pleasant, sweat, admirable, adorable, amiable, affectionate, dear, kind, unbiased, true, harmonious, peaceable, and tuneful are the messages which portrays positive songs. These words are not exactly used in the songs. But the themes were like that. Those positive words and metaphors along with some words that are not easily distinguishable as violent or non-violent and those songs that may provoke different feelings among different groups of people, specially due to their libel views, were not considered as 'violent' for the study.

Objectives and Scope

The general objective of this study is to evaluate the songs which are very popular in Terai region of Nepal and two states- Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, of India, for their non-violent and violent notion.

The study was carried out to:

1. Find out the level and intensity of violence in Bhojpuri songs

2. The state of women in Bhojpuri speaking community

3. Access priority of vulgar words, sexual and linguistic violence in the lyrics

4. Qualitatively analyze, if the musicians are inclined to cultural pollution

5. Push aside the restrict common pattern of society

This study will help to understand, if the perennial accusation to songs of being inclined towards violent issues is true, and if true, the exact situation of inclination. This will help the musicians and concerned authority to self-assess and self-correct them if necessary.

In larger context, the researcher believe that the study will help in the improvement of the overall songs by understanding the short comings of their broadcasting (publication), thus helping them to become more socially responsible and ethically standard.

Methodology and Limitations

This study is conducted on Bhojpuri songs from India and widely listens in Terai region of Nepal. This includes 11 Bhojpuri songs. The songs were categorized in to three types on the basis of their lyrics:

1. Positive (songs that we understand desirable, beneficial, or pleasant outcomes including state or consequences)

2. Violent or Negative (songs that we understand undesirable, harmful, blameful, arrogance or unpleasant)

3. Indistinguishable (songs difficult to identify violent or non-violent)

The songs were reviewed in the terms of words and metaphors, notion to see if they were violent or non-violent while describing the subject matter or issues through lyrics. The songs other than Bhojpuri were excluded from the study due to limited resource for the research. Here, the songs other than Bhojpuri mean- Maithili, Awadhi, Nepali, and Hindi which are widely listen in that very region are not studied.

In general, analysis and interpretation of songs has wide scope and dimensions; however, no single analysis is complete and reflects a complete picture. A total of 11 Bhojpuri songs which is widely listened and are popular in Ancient Mithila (Bihar, India and Terai region , Nepal at present) and Uttar Pradesh, India, were analyzed by processing the collected data.

Literature Review

Sexist language is language that excludes either men or women when discussing a topic that is applicable to both sexes. This includes using the word man to refer to humanity, and using titles like Congressman and fireman. Another common error that shows gender bias is assuming that the subject of all sentences is male. Underlying sexist language is gender bias, which can occur consciously or unconsciously. As Allyson Jule argues that "Sexist language also presents stereotypes of both females and males, sometimes to the disadvantage of males, but more often to the disadvantage of females. This sexism is seen universally in all languages. In English, Robin Lakoff (1975) uses the example of 'master' vs 'mistress' to make the point: there are unequal connotations that surround these two matching terms--and to the detriment of those born female--'Master' has strong and powerful connotations, while 'mistress' does not. Sexist language also includes the depiction of women in the position of passive object rather than active subject, such as on the basis of their appearance ('a blonde') or domestic roles ('a mother of two') when similar depictions in similar contexts would not be made of men. These representations of women trivialize their lives and place an extra level of personal judgment on them."

Questions and criticisms of sexist language have emerged because of a concern that language is a powerful medium through which the world is both reflected and constructed. Some have claimed that the use of generics (such as 'mankind' to refer to both men and women) reinforces a binary that sees the male and masculine as the norm and the female and feminine as the 'not norm.

As Deborah Cameroon puts it, "Sexist language teaches us what those who use it and disseminate it think women's place ought to be: second class citizens, neither seen nor heard, eternal sex objects and personification of evil." In this way, sexist language is violent. Cameroon proceeds to refer "to violent speaking and writing to violent-centric language."

While talking about violence, the definition of violent word borrowed from Psychology. Roy F Baumister, Ellent Bratslavsky, Kathleen Vohs & Cartin Finkenquer (2001) defined, non-violent (Positive) as something that we understand desirable, beneficial or pleasant outcomes including states or consequences while negative (Violent) is the opposite : undesirable, harmful or unpleasant. Although, "Good and bad are among the fist concept learned by children and most people can readily characterize almost any experience, emotion or outcomes as good or bad." (Baumister, Bratslavsky, Vohs & Finkenquer : 2001), the strict implementations in the study was not easy.

Hannah Arendt says that "Violence is nothing more than the most flagrant manifestation of power." Given this definition, one might expect that violence takes many forms. Numerous writers have, in fact, applied violence to more than direct bodily harm. How does language do violence? How does language hurt or harm us? Rejecting the theory of etymological oppression, Stephaine Ross argues that "the ancient root of ordinary English words cannot –by themselves—make these words oppressive."

Feminism provides several role models for those wishing to supplant linguistic vilence. David Graddol and Joan Swann's claim that "language both helps to construct sexual inequality and reflects its existence in the society."

Related works on Bhojpuri songs has been done by few researchers. These people have dealt with Bhojpuri songs from various angles but not have been discussed from linguistic violence on women point of view, a view point that is the main focus of this paper. Mishra (1959) has touched upon women's condition but only shortly, however the linguistic violence against the women is still untouched.

Chauhan (1972) and Upadhyay (1978) have given only a general view of Bhojpuri Folk songs and have not dealt with them from women's point of view. Tripathi (1962) has done some work for Bhojpuri songs, but not have studied them from linguistic perspective. And, Shrivastav (1991) has observed the presentation of women in Bhojpuri songs from Hindu ritual and cultural perspective. How a woman is portrayed in Bhojpuri songs, how men desires, wishes and make expectation from her, what frustration and injustice she receives from the lyrics of these kinds of songs is a subject that has not received attention in the society. The present paper attempts to fill this gap.

Analysis & Interpretation

The Bhojpuri songs have played a pivotal role in the social and cultural pollution in society, there have been criticism, from scholars, journalist, and ordinary listeners.

In this section, my effort is to seek answers of the following question:

1. Are Bhojpuri speaking community inherently very violent towards female?

2. Is sexual or linguistic violence common to them?

3. Do the songs reflect actual cultural and social practices?

4. Are the songs an agent of cultural pollution?

Bhojpuri community falls under Ancient Mithila of Ancient India. Mithila culture never taught anyone to be violent toward any living being. As Swami Vivekanand has said "that country and that nation that do not respect women have never become great, nor ever be in future". Women are considered as weaker sex not only from physical point of view but also from sociological aspect also. When we refer to Manusmriti , we notice that women has always been dependent on man." During childhood on her father, after marriage on her husband, and during her old age on her son." Mahatma Gandhi observed that "Where women are respected there god reside".

Culturally women have got higher place in Bhojpuri and Maithili communities; women are taken as Janaki (Sita), the daughter of King Janak of Ancient Mithila. As Sanjay Yadav, Singer of Maithili songs observes that-"Bhojpuri speaking community are not violent towards women. It is the vulgarity in it, which defame women. Indecentness has came like a flood in Bhojpuri songs. Artistic songs are not taking good market. The selection of vulgar words in Bhojpuri songs have double meaning. At least 3 or 4 songs are full of vulgarity in each movies and songs album."

The flashy metaphors and words selection have become the main reason for larger market of Bhojpuri songs. The prioritization of violent issues, Journalist Ajay Anuragi believes that- "Bhojpuri songs are calumniating the society, it is dispersing cultural pollution. It is a conspiracy to pollute language & culture of Nepal and India."

Fast music and high bit rate music are the main things that attract listeners, since listeners don't want to hear slow music these days. Hindi, Maithili & Nepali songs are not being able to meet the demand of people, since music is not fast and vulgar metaphors are not used in them. On the contrary, any society is not culturally corrupt. As Mahatma Gandhi has said-"No any religion teaches violence". Similarly, I think no any society permits cultural violence to spread. But as far as Bhojpuri songs are concern, it compels one to view the society as male dominated and women as an object of entertainment. Social responsibility should be the major motto any songs and it should reflect cultural practices prevalent in the society. But, most of the songs published nowadays are not being able to reflect cultural and social practices of Bhojpuri speaking community. These songs are only treating women as a commodity and compare sexual organs of female and male with different metaphors, which has no sense at all-it is only an effort to pollute the culture. These songs portrays message that Bhojpuri women are second grade citizen who have cheap value.

Dhirendra Premarshi observes the condition of Women in Mithila like this, in his song-

"बीत-बीतपर लछमन-रेखा डेग-डेगपर आरि

केहन विधना लिखल विधाता सदिखन गारिए-मारि

अक्खज भ˜ जीबैए नारि, अपनाकेँ अपनहि परतारि " (quoted from Jha, Rupa. 2011)

The Lyrics of the song portrays the message that- Women have to face difficulties in each step of her life and god provided the fate in which women have to suffer from different 'abuse' & 'violence'. As Jha (2011) observes that-"Stone is taken in the form of god and is worshiped but the creator of the world, women (mother) is behaved like stone- anyone can hit & dishonor"

In the view of Cultural expert & Scholar, Dhirendra Premarshi,-"Society is lacking morality. The things which come in cheaper ways gain a bigger space. Maithili literature & culture cannot digest vulgarity in it but Bhojpuri societies have digested vulgarity and it is due to cultural degradation. Bhojpuri culture is not impure in itself; it does not permit any vulgarity. This is only the reflection of culturally defenseless society. On the other side, culturally and morally corrupt persons are indulged in Bhojpuri music and these persons can't produce pleasant songs which have artistic and aesthetic value. I think society should be aware, they should march against these pollutions."

As we can see from the word selection in the lyrics, one can not dare ethically to listen Bhojpuri songs with family members-the lyrics of the songs are too much ill-bred. Tirtha Adhikary, Office Assistant at Student Welfare Directorate at Kathmandu University and inhabitant of Janakpur, observes that "Bhojpuri songs are violent towards female. They don't care about female's prestige and pride. The songs are catchy and appealing among youths due to catchiness."

It is to be noted that to a great extent language violence is nourished by Bhojpuri songs over women these days. The women of Bhojpuri community are not being able to protest against these pollutions. The society is fully male dominated. The voices of women are suppressed by the head of the family members. Bandana Singh, a student of Media Studies at Kathmandu University and belonging to Bhojpuri community argue that-"Bhojpuri community is violent towards women. The community is male dominated. Female have no right to speak on any issue and due to this, vulgarity & violence through these songs have become normal to us."

A feminist and Professor of English at Department of Languages & Mass Communication, Kathmandu University, Mrs. Ekku Maya Pun believes, "Literature influences people, so what we write or say must be carefully planned, because what we disseminate through literature (songs) sets the idea of the people. Likewise, when these kinds of songs are disseminated, the people or listeners set idea about the songs. They make the concept through the songs. They think, this is reality and make concept about it. The decorative lyrics will be the real reality for the people as they are portrayed exact in the songs. The normal behavior of male towards the song will be a problem for women as the society take it to be normal, the sentiments of women get hurt. The emotional feeling of women will not be taken in to consideration as the society has accepted the songs and take it to be normal."

I found that women are also responsible for such conditions. Female singers have also sung vulgar and cheap words to entertain the listeners and they are exercising a lot to make fun of their sexual organs- this attempt attracts listeners to a great extent, especially youths. For example, in the song "ATM Machine", female says- 'Aake Aajmaale', which means that she is convincing a boy to come for sex and then examine her. Again in the next paragraph, she sung, 'To Maukaa Baa Dabaale', which means that she has already given chance to play with her breasts.

In the next song, "Thermometer" is a sung by female singer. Females' sexual organs are compared with 'Heater', here. A female singer herself is making fun of her sexual organs to earn cheap popularity and maximum rating points among the audience. Besides, there are many other songs sung by female singer which shows women as weak, low grade, and an object of entertainment.

Linguistic Violence in Bhojpuri Song:

Talking about some prominent developments in the songs, it was seen that the women were shown as an object of entertainment. The metaphors used in the Bhojpuri songs for portraying female sex organs are as- ATM Machine, Bombs, Bluetooth, Hawra Bridge, Powerhouse, Godown, Generator, System (Computer CPU), Hang, Gunpowder, Mobile, Heater, and others are used for the representation of female sex organs.

Here, ATM Machine is metaphorically used for female reproductive organ where male put his reproductive organ during sexual intercourse. It is compared in such a way that ATM Machine is a machine where money is put and withdrawn by card holders. The space to feed ATM card is though lesser, it gives desired amount. In this way, females' reproductive organ is also a place where male put their sexual organ, though the size would be smaller, male will take lots of sexual enjoyments- the size does not matter here.

'Bombs' are targeted as females' breast. Breast is a sexual organ where men feel sexual pleasure while playing with it. It plays a vital role to generate sexual emotions in the female. As breasts become fully charged, the females become ready for sexual intercourse. Here, breast is compared with bombs because unless breast is in sexual emotion, the women won't feel sexually satisfied during and after sex. So, breast plays a vital role as an explosive to garnish sex. Further adding to it, bombs are very explosive. It can destroy lakhs of people and property, similarly, females' sexual emotion is also very dangerous, and breast is one of the indispensable sexual organ to breed sexual emotions in the females' body.

'Godown' is one of the metaphor used in the song to represent female reproductive organ. Godown is used in the sense that female reproductive organ, Vagina, is as a place where lots of things can be stored, 'things' is the word to represent male reproductive organ. Female reproductive organ can give shelter to lots of male reproductive organs for sexual enjoyment and also it works as a store house of much more sperms. Female reproductive organ being a store house of much more sperms. Female reproductive organ being a store house to feed lots of male reproductive organs of different people and it's secretion, sperm.

On the contrary, 'Generator' is the term used to relate female reproductive organ again. Generator is an electrical appliance, which has no worthiness without electricity. In the same way, female reproductive organ is also of no worth in absence of male reproductive organ- it can't take enjoyment, both parties should reach to a consensus for sex. A generator gives heat, female reproductive organ also give sexual emotions and without it sex can't be imagined. The metaphor, generator wants to give meaning that female reproductive organ is also like a generator which work as a catalyst to bring change in the rate of sexual emotion.

On the other hand, 'System' being another metaphor to compare with female reproductive organ. Here, it is said that, as the number of people to run the system (computer) increases, the performativity also decreases with the passage of time, since lots of people may run the system without being careful. Similarly, female reproductive organ is also a system which will degrade as the number of men increases for sex. Here, the matter of concern is that system also becomes slower or inactive as the violent use increases. Similarly, the pleasurable of a female reproductive organ also will degrade as the number of violent users increases. So, it tries to deliver a message that to maintain sexual purity, a woman must not be intercourse by more than one.

'Hang' is the word used to represent sexual mood. As the computer becomes hang, it stops working. Similarly, if females' sexual organ lacks sexual emotion, it may also become hang as a computer. So, the word hang here used to mean that loss of excitements than normal condition.

'Bluetooth', the electronic component used to transfer the data is compared with female reproductive organ. Here, the song portrays the message that as the Bluetooth is on, the virus may attack, similarly, as the female reproductive organ is naked, anyone may come and enter his male reproductive organ in to it. Virus is related to male reproductive organ. So, female reproductive organ is as open, there sex may start at any time. The song gives another message that to be protected from viral infections; the female must keep an up-to-date Anti-virus, which may kill the viruses. Here, Anti-virus is for a perfect man who will not allow other to have physical relation with a girl. If we see it from other side, it tries to give message about the importance of safe sex and contraceptives.

'Hawra Bridge' being another metaphor to represent female reproductive organ again. Hawra Bridge is a wider bridge of West Bengal, India. A girl being physically seduced by many men time and again then her reproductive organ will become like 'Hawra Bridge', anything can enter. The bridge symbolizes the width of female reproductive organ that even permit larger and thicker male reproductive organ to enter in to her.

'Power house' is compared with female reproductive organ. The power house is an electrical appliance which can store lots of electricity & it's very dangerous and hot- if any one touches it may die. The female reproductive organ is related to power house, the reason behind it is that, female reproductive organ is also very hot and dangerous. If it is in heavy sexual emotion, it can't be fully satisfied by men though after a long sexual exercise. So, female reproductive organ is also a store house where sexual energy is stored.

'Mobile' being another metaphor to represent female reproductive organ. It appeals to a girl that her reproductive organ is not like a mobile phone, which can be repaired time and again. Mobile phone can be used by many and it may be in active mode but if a girl intercourse by many, her reproductive organ may become loose and may lack sexual emotion as before and it can't be repaired again like a mobile phone.

'Gunpowder' is related with female reproductive organ. Gunpowder is explosive in nature and female reproductive organ is too, according to the song. The female reproductive organ can also explode, if not sexually satisfied. 'Heater', a metaphor to compare with female reproductive organ. Heater is an electrical appliance and it is used to generate heat for cooking & other purposes. The song portrays the message that female reproductive organ is also like a heater which produces heat in the form of sexual emotion. If the sexual emotion of a female is not satisfied, it also produces heat which can be dangerous; dangerous in the sense that no any male can sexually satisfy the women if she is fully sexually excited.

On the contrary, while talking about male reproductive organ- AK 56, Virus, Cock, Vehicle, Cheque book, are the metaphors used to indicate male reproductive organ. 'AK56' is a rifle which can kill many & it's dangerous. Similarly, male reproductive organ is also very dangerous which can seduce any female and can make her pregnant. 'Virus' being another metaphor to compare with male reproductive organ which delivers message that as virus affect the whole software, male reproductive organ can also affect very deeply to female- if it is inserted, it can seduce for a longer time and may let her to reach in a problematic condition. 'Cock' is another term to relate with male reproductive organ and Hen being targeted for female. 'Vehicle', the metaphor to compare with male reproductive organ. It delivers message that male reproductive organ can run in any female reproductive organ like a vehicle- the size of female reproductive organ does not make any change for the male reproductive organ during sex.

On the adverse side, the co- modification of female body is also done in the Bhojpuri songs. Lollipop, Ice-cream, Meter, Nokia's body, sweet dishes, and different mobile networks were used to represent female as a commodity. It delivers message that the girls are like Lollipop, sweet dishes, and ice cream which can salivate anybody and can attract any one. Similarly, girls are like different mobile networks, a man can change, if they are no more interested in one-as people change the mobile network (SIM) basing on their convenience.

The other common factor in these songs were the use of English language and also the effort to mix not only English words but also Hindi words; also different modern technology names & places. For example: Godown, Bluetooth, Memory, Beautiful, Hang, Doctor, Love's Tonic, Tension Cool, Heater, Virus, Anti-virus, ATM Machine, Power house, Pregnant, Hawra Bridge, and Cheque book. And, different places are Aara, Chapra, Motihari, Tata, Baliya, Shivan, Patna and other districts of Bihar, India. Not only that, different mobile networks such as such as Vodafone, Airtel, Tata Indicom, Docomo, Reliance, MTNL, BSNL, Hutch and Idea were used to mean different girls. The reason to mix these words in the song is that, it captures the attention of listeners and viewers. Not only that these words have become an easy medium to relate with female reproductive organs & to commodify the women as very cheap. As above, I have mentioned, there are different metaphors to mean female reproductive organ and male reproductive organ as well. The musicians and film producers are very aware, they want to deliver the message with full of vulgarity but not in direct way- they have sought alternative metaphors to relate with sex organs. And mixing of these words made the song more appealing as market shows. Because youths want to get entertained by making fun of women. Linguistic violence occurs across a continuum that stretches from slight forms such as autocratic and genocidal language. The elements taken as representatives of violence in language are as: Interrupting, Contemptuous hurting tone, not apologizing (defying the acknowledgement of an offence), Shouting, Threatening, Cursing (to invoke evil),Bossing (to order aggressively to do or not to do things) ,Teasing and Offending (Verbal abuse).

"Humans are much more likely to recall and be influenced by negative experiences of the past." (Smith, Larsen, Chartrand, Cacioppo, Katatiasz & Moran, 2006). But the priority of negativity (violence) is not justifiable as this shows an inclination towards being cheap and lack of responsibility. "Negative experiences or fear of bad events has a greater impact on people than do neutral experience or even positive experience." (Smith, Larsen, Chartrand, Cacioppo, Katatiasz & Moran: 2006). With listening more violent/negative songs and less positive songs every day, people of community are more likely to take in to consideration the violent in decision making. The people (especially men) may become more violent towards wo It is the slander in these songs which is polluting the cultures of Nepal & India; and due to it, youths get blindly attracted. Bikash Thakur, a Barber at 28 Kilo, KU Chowk, Dhulikhel, observes that, "it is the vulgar and sexual words which attracts us a lot. Mostly, I listen songs for its vulgarities, which is entertaining."

Sexist language encourages discrimination and can discourage people from pursuing their dreams. If engineers are always spoken of as male, a girl who aspires to be an engineer may feel that she has no hope, since "all" engineers are men. Similarly, if Bhojpuri songs remain like this, the women may feel that they are not for them, since the song portrays- women as a medium of entertainment for men. Sexist language also offends people when they find themselves excluded. This is not an issue that violates freedom of speech; you are free to use offensive language, and also free to decide that you do not agree with the aforementioned definition of what constitutes sexist language. However, if language is offensive to half of audience, message will not get across. People will not be receptive to the arguments if they are aggrieved by the use of exclusively masculine pronouns. And one thing is also evident from the study is that-Bhojpuri songs construct the message & culture rather reflect. It has became a medium for the construction of hyper reality.

Violent words at the Start (Sthayee):

Almost more than half of the songs, 60 per cent published have violent words and metaphors. The remaining metaphors comprised of positive (30 %) and indistinguishable (10%). The figure, establishes the fact that the songs were predominantly violent towards women.

It is also notable that 30 per cent of the songs which were not having violent start had also violent metaphors in the middle. During the study, 10 per cent of the songs which were indistinguishable are non-violent. The song sung by male and female were taken under the study.

It is observed that the songs which have violent metaphors at the beginning have gained better market than the songs having violent words at the middle or at the end. So, from above finding, it is evident that to gain popularity and good business, musicians try to put vulgar & offensive words which defame the women, put at the beginning of the songs.

Conclusion

It is easy to discuss on the contents of Bhojpuri songs, both for and against it. Based on perennial criticism that Bhojpuri songs' contents are mostly negative (violent) and that songs' focus has been more destructive (violent) than constructive (building Positiveness) role, the researcher began this study with an assumption that Bhojpuri songs are highly violent.

Though there had been few studies and researches on Bhojpuri songs, the research on the particular issue is very first attempt in both India and Nepal. Right could be considered wrong and wrong could be considered right on the absence of researches. The research was carried out to discuss the general characteristics of Bhojpuri songs, mainly to avoid speculations estimations. It shows situation of violence in Bhojpuri songs, which is widely aired in mass media of India and Nepal.

Result of research indicated that the first paragraph of the songs has predominantly of negative tone and notion. Almost more than half of the first paragraphs of the songs were used violently and bombarding words for attracting peoples' attention. Musician's loves for violence and/or bombarding word is understandable as they gave sensational effect and as, Psychology describes it, have long lasting effect.

Due to these songs, the conflict and issues of discrimination may arise in the society. The rapid growing of these kinds of vulgar and baseless songs can create a cheap image of every woman. The male will not think women to be as capable and equally smart as them rather they will just be portrayed as toys or packet of entertainment. On the contradictory view, female will also start some kind of revolution; definitely the revolution will not be for change rather it will be for conflict. Female will start hating men and the music, Bhojpuri music. They will rebel with the view that women are not an object for sex. Women are equally capable and do have self-respect and high esteem within themselves. These cheap songs will not degrade their image within their eyes rather will think male as a cheap and a human being with stone heart, who has no respect for his own female members in the society.

One thing should be noted that every songs of Bhojpuri Films & Albums are not cheap, which have sexual and linguistic violence over women. There are songs which portrays reflection of real Bhojpuri cultures and society. But, I am sorry to say this; most of the songs nowadays are offensive. Further researches can help in more precise understanding of the situation.

References

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Smith NK, Larsen JT, Chartrand TL, Cacioppo JT, Katatiasz HA, Moran KE (2006). Being bad isn't always good: affective context moderates the attention bias toward negative information. Journal of personality and social psychology. 90. 210-220. American Psychological Association.

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Upadhyay, K.D. (1978). Avadhi Lokgeet.[Avadhi Folksongs]. Allahabad: Sahitya Bhavan.

Chauhan,V (1972). Lok geeton ki sanskritic pristhbhumi [The cultural background of folk songs]. Agra: Pragati Prakashan

Mishra,S.D. (1969). Importance of women in Hindi Folksongs. Women in Hindi Folklore. Calcutta: Indian publication.

Language violence, Retrieved November 21, from http://Wikipedia.com/a/violence.html

Shrivastav (1991). Women as portrayed in Women's Folk Songs of North India. Asian folklore studies, Volume 50.

Jha, R (2011). Mithilame Mahilaka Abastha. Karyapatra.[Condition of Women in Mithila: A Workshop].

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Appendix

1. Lagabelu jab lipstick…..

Lagaabelu jab lipstick

hilelaa aara district

kamariyaa, kamariyaa

kamariyaa kare laapalap

lalipop laagelu

galiyaa pa baliyaa jhume

muskee pe jhumelaa taataa-taataa

Gorakhpur devariyaa me tohar

Book rahelaa saataa, saataa

Pahirelu tu jab nathuniyaa

Hilelaa bhabuwaa mohaniyaa

Tu chakachak laagelu

kamariyaa, kamariyaa kamariyaa

kare laapalap

lalipop laagelu

Ghagharaa pa chhaparaa hile

Boli pa chalelaa goli

Maar karawela choli

Dekhike chadhal jawaani

Hile Patna Raajdhani

Malai baraf lagelu

kamariyaa, kamariyaa

kamariyaa kare laapalap

lalipop lagelu

bindiyaa pe Bakshar dole

baali pa Sasaram Tihari

Motihari, Siban dole

Lahraaye jab dhani chunari

Chalelu chaal matwali

Jahidbo tane tunaali

Tu aalu-chap lagelu

kamariyaa, kamariyaa kamariyaa

kare laapalap

lalipop laagelu

*****

2. ATM Machine…..

Ekraa me ghusal baate notebaa ke gaddi

Ehise phulayal baate ekar hai body

Jekaraa bhetaae u hojaae maalamaale

Female: Aare to aake aajmaale

Male: Chauri hiya ATM Machine

Kehu daale kehu nikaale

Female: Mar dev saale

Male: Chauri hiya ATM Machine

Kehu daale kehu nikaale

Raakhe bodyguard hiyaa body dhaakad , Bajr kamariyaa baa sinaa baate chaakad

Sor baate ekar gauwa dehaat me

Sahar me use hole din tauni raat me, dher lok dekhi naa hi avitaale

Chauri hiya ATM Machine

Kehu daale kehu nikaale

Suna marelaa baat bahe tani sahee

Ekare me dhukal baa bank, khaataa bahi

Jhuth nahi kahataa ni batiyaa baa saach ho

Chhapraa, shivaan baate ekar branch ho

Kabo kabo Aara auri Baliyaa bhetaale

Chauri hiya ATM Machine

Kehu daale kehu nikaale

Dekhahi me chotiyaa load khiche Bhaari

Piche padal baa Bipin Khesari

Lihi jel caardmaal phek del bahi lahi

Man samrendra ke bada sohaale

Chauri hiya ATM Machine

Kehu daale kehu nikaale

*****

3.Ak 56…..

Chhauri ke dugo bam baa

Chhauraa me dam baa ta chauri kahaa kam baa

Chhauraa AK56 leke chhauri ke daraabe

Chhauri dugo bam leke chhaura ke dhamkaabe

Chhauraa ta thandaa baa ki chhauri ta garam baa

Chhauraa me dam baa ta chauri kahaa kam baa

Chhauri chale Ranger se ta chhaur chale Splender se

Chhauraa deraaiyal samaan dunu danger se

Chhauri ke choliyaa me dugo buttom baa

Chhauraa me dam baa ta chauri kahaa kam baa

Chhauraa chale chhatiya se sinmaa ladaake

Chhari chale rahiya me khub agraake

Chhaura ta thik baa ki chhauri besharam baa

Chhauraa me dam baa ta chauri kahaa kam baa

Paban balamuwa ke sunil kahan baa

Ab nahi sudhari e bigaral jawan baa

Sakal balamuwa ke e naya item baa

Chhauraa me dam baa ta chauri kahaa kam baa

*****

4. Generator…

Saaraa samiyaanaa me machhabalu tabaahi

Odhani bichhaa ke puchhelu ki chhaahi

Chiniyaa badaam chikhaaiyi

Na delu love-letter

Banda kar generator

Band kar generator ekar dekhala jaa theater

Chara chara karat chauki aise hilaabe kamariyaa

Aaraa, Baliyaa, hilauli ab hilaihe debariyaa

Ho gayil kharaab saaraa pyaar baalaa meter

Band kar generator ekar dekhala jaa theater

Bhukur bhukur dekha tare sang baala bhaai

Paan baalaa bujh tare ab naa bhetaai

Tabe uthaai apan godown baalaa setter

Band kar generator ekar dekhala jaa theater

Lechhal ja rauti ke oichhe piyaa e nigaah me

Jhulan jhule Raadhe shyaam rasiyaa ji

Muh baa tare chaah me

Dhekha me laag tiyaa eho baaraa better

Band kar generator ekar dekhala jaa theater

Band kar generator ekar dekhala jaa theater

*****

5. virus……

Tip top der jani kara na karaa ba

System kharaab hoe abhi se bachaa ba

Hojaae kharaab khelaa ruk jaae ho

Ki Bluetooth khol ke jani tu raakha

Virus ghus jaae ho

Nahi jaane kai GB ke laagal baa toh me memory

Kaigo se roj dalbaabe lu tab man nahi bhare e gori

Bahut bemaari ahi me dhuka jaae ho

Ki Bluetooth khol ke jani tu raakha ,Virus ghus jaae ho

Nahi maanbu ta kharchhaa badha jaayi

Bhej body Nokia ke

Na kaam karinaa ajay, san bhal ketano hoe repair

Packet me daam sab utha jaae ho

Ki Bluetooth khol ke jani tu raakha, Virus ghus jaae ho

Ego de taani toh ke raay

Upaay hamar apanaa la

Pahale tu Anti-virus gori Anil se dalbaa la

Tension se pichaa tohar chhuta jaae ho

Ki Bluetooth khol ke jani tu raakha

Virus ghus jaayi ho

6. Hawra pool (Hawraa Bridge)…

Pichha padal ekraa chhora da ae bhaai

Mat kara aetna bhul

Upar se laagela Beautiful

Niche se Hawraa Pool

Chhedi chhedi jaali ha e ta maal bangaali ha

Kare ghayal karejaa ke bhitar

E banduk du naali ha

Apne daaraa binale rojo

Tohe chhataa di dhul

Upar se laagela Beautiful

Niche se Hawraa Pool

Saphaa chat bhitar se baate

Bahar se khhaali nayaa baa

Jaada load e saha na paae

Condom ekar paayaa baa

Garam rahe ekar powerhouse

Dolaa na babhu pul

Upar se laagela Beautiful

Niche se Hawraa Pool

Gajab film dekhle biyaa

Karela ki gajan ho

Sadhu baabaa dekha te eke

Chhodale gayil bhajan ho

Mahesh ke saari ghaataa hojaae

Kara na aete Kabul

Upar se laagela Beautiful

Niche se Hawraa Pool

*****

7. Thermometer

Tu bhiri jaani sat na ta jar jaeba

Barud niyan bhaka sa lahar jaiba

Hamari jawaniyaa ke Dhaka Dhaka ta heater

Ta aaju naapam taahar garmee

Lagaake thermometer

Tani hamraa ke laikaa ta bhujha

Tarakat baa bhitari jawaanee

Thandaae de ham tora garmee

Bhar de ham tora garmee

Bhar de ham hoed me paani

Khel khae ke umariyaa tohaar badhupe

Abhi badhi chadhi bolal bekaar badhhupbe

Dunu bera dudha piya jaake du chhaar litre

Ta aaju naapam taahar garmee

Lagaake thermometer

Naahi ae tohar khichhaae

Pasanaa na jaeb ae bachha

Challenge na ham sa kara

Umar baa ab hi kachhaa

Bujhal

Pura jilaa ke kilaa ukhaad de ham

Motihaari ke jhandaa yihaa gaar de ham

Toharaa gilaa kilaa ukhaad de ham

Motihaari ke jhandaa yihaa gaar de ham

Toharaa gilaa kilaa ukhaad de ham

Huta taa hamraa lahangaa ke bhitar

Ta aaju naapam taahar garmee

Lagaake thermometer.

*****

8. kehu kahe jilebi hamkaa…

kehu kahe jilebi hamkaa, kehu kahe rasgulla…..

Ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa

Jhumkaa dekhaabe ham kaa

Ki akhiyaa mare saraa mullaa

Ki baby cut jab jab pehni jhulla

kehu kahe jilebi hamkaa, kehu kahe rasgulla

Ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa

Jhumkaa dekhaabe ham kaa

Ki akhiyaa mare saraa mullaa

Ki baby cut jab jab pehni jhulla

56 churi 72 pecha

Kahelaa budhbaa sayaan ho

BDO, CO, mukhiyaa ji ke

Dolal ba emaan ho

Sarpanch sahib chori chori dekhhaabe nakbullaa ho

Ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa

Jhumkaa dekhaabe ham kaa

Ki akhiyaa mare saraa mullaa

Ki baby cut jab jab pehni jhulla

Sanjay, sinehi,nirmal, nitesh

Chori, chori taakash

Das yogendra, Krishna tiwaari khulla mulla jhaakas

Sorahe barash me hamre umariya

Ho gayil gul gulla

Ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa, ki sonaraa

Jhumkaa dekhaabe ham kaa

Ki akhiyaa mare saraa mullaa

Ki baby cut jab jab pehni jhulla

*****

9. Airtel, Hutch….

Female: es root ki sabhi laaine load hai

Kripayaa 9 mahine baad daayal kare

Male :Airtel e busy bataabe

Tata ke jaldi tower nahi aabe

Female: kripaya thodi der baad daayal kare mobile abhi chholi me baa

Male: Airtel e busy bataabe

Tata ke jaldi tower nahi aabe

Aircel ke bill jaadaa badha taa

Female: es root ki sabhi ladkiyaa busy hai

Raat me phone kare

Male: lela lela e darling Vodafone

Hutch bach ken a dharataa

Tension Reliance seho badhaba ta

Rahi rahi man jhulaab ta

Docomo naayaa baa aaiyil baa

Hamaraa na taniko bhabataa

MTNL baa ghare ghare

Bhayil rahelaa katahi nag hare

BSNL se man bada darataa

Female: Aapke call connect nahi ki sakti hai aahe paisaa dal baa la na

Male: le la kareja Vodafone

Le la ae darkibg Vodafone

Sabh kar bhayil e niji baa ekar function easy baa

Gaana sunaayil, film dekhayi

Na e taniko busy baa

Sabha ka ghare paabe ki naahi

Aehi se man tahar baaru butaayil

Bola kahe e jiyaa ha darataa

Female: es mobile switch off hai ki jaani mona kab kholi

Male: Le la ae madam Vodafone

Hutch bach ken a dharaata

Love jabi roj batiyaiha ho

Taniko na tu hu sarmai ho

Ham ta lele baani Idea ke

Oho sa Hutch ke ladaiha ho

Krishnaa subodh baa daal dihi power

Kaha le Khesaari kabo Jaayin Tower

Phone be pa chumma leti man karata

Female: kripya line lage rahe aa ka bo dhari

Male: lela lela ae madam Vodafone

Hutch bach ken a dhara ta

Female: es root ki sabhi laaine load hai

Kripayaa 9 mahine baad daayal kare

Male :Airtel e busy bataabe

Tata ke jaldi tower nahi aabe

*****

10. Love ke Doctor…

tab ta baanki sukhaael jaat baadu

Din oa din dubraael jaat baadu

Sukhaael jaat baadu, dubraael jaat baadu

Haae dil ke doctor milala kara

Gori love ke tonic piyal kara

Jhekraa dhare love ke bemaari

Bhukha pyaas mar jaalaa ho

Jaagal jaagal din raaat saari

Chintaa me dehiyaa sukhhaael ho

Hamare ke rogi jaanat tuh baadu

Thik hoebu suhaaa liyal kara

Haae dil ke doctor milala kara

Gori love ke tonic piyal kara

Hamaraa bheta aa bal kara

Nayan ladaabal kara

Kucha din ke bhitare motaa jaibu

Ahe rog ke ham hae specialist

Badhube guarantee thik ho jaibu

Tohra apan fees nahi leba

Kahabu tau par se ta hami kuch deba

Baanki masti me jindagi jiyal kara

Haae dil ke doctor milala kara

Gori love ke tonic piyal kara

Hamaraa samajha se ho jaae shaadi

Dulhaa ham ke banaala ho

Hamraa pasan suna he dil jani

Aapan pasan bataab ho

Chaahataani ho jaae ae lagan me shaadi

Kahe ki hamar bimaar biya daadi

Tension cool, apan diyal kara

Haae dil ke doctor milala kara

Gori love ke tonic piyal kara

*****

11. Murga Bechhain baate, Murgi ke khaatir……

Murga Bechhain baate, Murgi ke khaatir

Murgu ke khoja tare

Kabahi se karata ku ku ho ku

Ki kene gayil re muragiyaa ku ku ho ku

Kabo aguti kabo pachuti

Chhakkar kaate pulbaari ke

Je bhi bhetaa ta okaraa se puchhe

Paataa apan praan pyaari ke

Okar phikariyaa ghumtaa bahariyaa

Chhori apan darbaa ku ku ho ku

Ki kene gayil re muragiyaa ku ku ho ku

Laaga ta kauno doshar muraga baa

Murgi ke ekra pataile baa

Aehu bechhaaraa ke kaahe nai akhari

Aeho ta ashraa lagaile baa

Dalabu sikhaake chhunaa lagaake

Mauke pe ku ku ho ku

Ki kene gayil re muragiyaa ku ku ho ku

Soniyaa ke murgi dekhale baa jab se

Kaluwa ke lubhaai labaa

Okare pheraa me rahataa hardam

Okare pichhe pagalaaila baa

Khaanaa nahi khaataa khub chichiaataa

O meri murgi – I Love You

Ki kene gayil re muragiyaa ku ku ho ku

*****

By:

Jivesh Jha

Bachelors in Media Studies

Year- 3rd ,Semester- 1st

Department of Languages & Mass Communication,

Kathmandu University, Nepal