The Evaluation Approach
Professor B.S. Bloom gave a new concept in Education known as Evaluation Approach. According to him "Evaluation is a continuous process. It has three components- Behavioural Changes, Learning Experiences and Teaching Objectives.
Steps of Evaluation Approach- Evaluation approach of lesson planning consists of the following steps-
Evaluation, Teaching Aids, Pupil's Activities, Teacher's Activities, Aims and Specifications or Behavioural Objectives, Content or Teaching Point.
This is the last step in Herbartian steps of lesson planning. The teacher ascertains whether the pupils have understood and grasped the subject- matter or not. It is generally done by one of the following ways-
i. Asking suitable questions on the topic taught.
ii. Asking pupils to label the unlabelled sketches.
It is said that knowledge which is not used will soon fade frame consciousness. So it is necessary that the generalizations may be applied to the solution of particular examples in the application step. This application serves the purpose of revision and recapitulation of principles just learnt. The main aim is to fix the new knowledge in the minds of the pupils. Thus, knowledge becomes clear and meaningful.
In an inductive lesson the result of the agreement of facts after observation and comparison leads the pupils to a certain conclusion which should enable them to frame a general law or principle. The pupil's generalization may sometimes be incomplete and wrongly stated. The teacher should help them to complete and correct.
4. Comparison or Association:
The new ideas or knowledge to be learnt should be compared and associated with already known ideas and facts. It is felt that in an inductive lesson such as a formula in algebra or the framing of a principle in Science, Compare what was given to them with the results obtained after going through a certain process.
This marks the commencement of the actual lesson. The teacher makes a statement of the aim in which he briefly tells the class what they are about to learn. This creates a readiness in the minds of the children and they know what they are about to learn. In presenting the lesson, the teacher carefully and skillfully arranges his material, tells a new relevant facts and "educates some very important principles by encouraging pupils to observe, compare and contrast the fact presented to them. The presentation step must consist of a great deal of mental activity on the part of the pupils. Even in an informative lesson, the teacher should talk as little as possible and makes the pupils talk as much possible.
According to Herbart the mind of the child must be prepared to receive new knowledge. This step should be brief and nothing new should be told to the students. There should be a link between the previous knowledge and the new lesson: This step may involve-
- Skilful discussion.
- Use of charts, pictures and models.
- Arousing curiosity by the novelty of experimentation.
- Testing of the previous knowledge.