Evaluation Process in Teaching Science:
Evaluation is a wider concept than testing and measurement. It is supposed to judge the worth of all the educational out comes brought about as a result of teaching learning process. It is a continuous appraisal of the achievement of the aims of education as well as methods of teaching and learning with a view to continuous improvements so that education becomes dynamic and self-developing. It involves the self- appraisal by the student of their success and failure from time to time. It helps the teacher in diagnosing the pupils' difficulties.
It is a continuous assessment of the pupil's day-today progress in all spheres. It helps in determining the potentialities and interests of every student. On the basis of the day-to-day records of the pupil it is easy to know the present status of a student and his growth towards the desirable goals. Thus, evaluation provides information essential for an effective guidance programme.
It is a continuous and comprehensive process which takes place in the school and outside the schools, and involves the participation of-the pupils, teachers, parents and community with a view to make improvement in the child and the whole educational process.
Principles and Objectives of Evaluation:
Evaluation is methodical and scientific processes that have following principles:
1. Ethics- The principle and ethics of evaluation should be kept in mind.
2. Work- The evaluator should work very carefully, while evaluating and should try to escape errors as far as possible.
3. Evaluation as Means- The evaluation should not be done for the sake of evaluation but as a means to achieve a fixed objective. Evaluation should not be considered the end but means to achieve other things.
4. Merits and Demerits of tools- While using the various methods and tolls of evaluation, the evaluator should have a complete knowledge of its usefulness. These should be used, keeping in mind their advantages and limitations.
5. Variety of tools- The evaluation of an individual is not possible through a single tool. Thus, for complete evaluation various tools should be used.
6. Use of Tools- The evaluation tools should be used for the competition of those objectives which are being evaluated. There are various tools of evaluation, each tools helps in achieving a particular objective and is not suitable for other types of objectives. Thus, the evaluation tools should be used for our fixed objectives of evaluation.
7. Selection of Tools- Unless and until the objective of evaluation has been defined carefully, it is not advisable to select the tools of evaluation or to develop them. When the aim of evaluation is clear before us, then •only the appropriate. Tools of achieve them should be selected according to the aims and objectives. If suitable tools are not available then, preparation of suitable tools should be worked upon.
Objectives of Evaluation :
1. To improve and modify- To help in the improvement and modification of the evaluation tools and techniques which should not be static but should change from time to time.
2. To test the all-round development of the child and his future success- It serves the diagnostic and prognostic purpose and thus serves as a basis for guidance to the teacher and the taught.
3. To test material- It helps in finding out the psychological and logical soundness of the material. Because curriculum is the base for the success of the educational process, it is essential that it should be dynamic and should be modified according to changing objectives.
4. To help in judging the effectiveness of the methods of teaching in terms of the objectives- The methods of teaching are also modified if they do not help in achieving the objectives.
5. To test the genuineness of objectives and helps required in their modification- It does not test the content learnt but the objectives. It the objectives are not achieved, it tries to find out the reason for that it may be that the objectives are not achieved because the objectives are ambitions or below the standard. It is, therefore, necessary to modify the objectives in the light of needs of the individual and of the society.