Audio- visual means all those sources which make the audio and visual sense organs of the pupils activated and they understand minute and difficult ideas of the lesson very conveniently. Thus, audio-visual aids include all those sources which make the pupils interested in the lesson and the learning objectives are achieved very easily. It is termed as Educational Technology while the use of audio-visual aids is termed as the Hardware Technology.
Some Audio-Visual Aids :
1. Science Excursions and Visits:
Excursions play an important role in physical Science. This is a massive and real method to obtain knowledge. The students can understand and examine the various problems of science in a natural and social atmosphere.
2. Science- Kits:
Science- kit an answer to the new challenges posed by compulsory science teaching, remote single teacher village schools, and the problems of science teacher. Science- Kits serve the purpose of laboratory. "Science Kit is a device of preparing folded apparatus and material and then to arrange them in a box which may serve as the demonstration table."
3. Display- Slides:
The teacher should make ample use of display-slides. They can see movement and reality in motion picture film presentations. It is difficult to stop a film presentation at a given point for discussion purposes. The use of slides provides ample opportunities to stop a presentation and discuss the contents when needed. In fact, it is highly recommended that pupils raise questions and present related ideas pertaining to any one slide.
With the help of this, the students take a lot of interest and can study the various scientific functions in an apparent manner. In display slides each subject is given in systematic sequence and in data and gives a clear knowledge of the subject. In idea, now the display slides, on various subjects are being prepared commercially.
Education Department, Government of India, N.C.E.R.T; an4 other institute are producing various slides related to science teacher can procure the necessary slides and show them the students and then return them.
With the help of epidiascope printed figures, pictures, diagrams etc. can be enlarged and projected on the screen. This is a boon for the teacher who monotony of the class teaching is broken up.
6. Projector, Tape:
Recorder, Television and Radio- The teacher can make use of the tape-recorder to make his teaching interesting. The teacher can show the students slides, film-strips and films and make the teaching interesting with the help of the projector. Sounds of different animals and birds, lectures of prominent scientists and specialists can be taped and can be reproduced before the students when required. The audio-visual section of N.C.E.R.T. has collected various tapes and established a tape-library.
7. Science Museum:
In a museum, we preserve substances, material and apparatus etc. These provide quite useful information fore many topics of physical science. In a school, establishing science museum should be prime necessity.
8. Apparatus and Material:
These are very essential for all science subjects. Without these no real science teaching is done. Demonstrations and experiments are very useful and they make use of apparatus and material. The students can learn the skill in proper handing and using apparatus and material
If due to some reasons it is not possible to show the real objects to the students in the class then they are shown the models of the objects. These models should have a close resemblance to the objects so the students perceive a true picture of it. The teacher should use the models of different types of scientific apparatus and scientific processes. These models can also be prepared by the students, with guidance from the teachers.
10. Real- Objects:
Real- objects are very important in the field of science. The student gets experience on the basis perception of objects. Objects like rocks, soils, minerals etc. can apparently be shown in the class. To show the object and to make this process more natural the students can be taken for excursions. Seeing the objects face to face the students get familiarized with these objects. Here these objects are considered very useful and lively means of teaching.
Modern education gives lot of importance to co- curriculum activities. It is now believed that classroom teaching is not sufficient to complete the education. Education should be designed and planned in such a way that the students may get an opportunity to come in contact with the realities of life. Co-curriculum activities provide such opportunities to the students.
Curriculum activities are also helpful in doing away with monotony of the classroom. In classroom, there is a formal discipline. The teacher and the taught have to remain in a much disciplined manner. In other words, the process of teaching in the classroom goes in a much formalized manner. This is not true of curriculum activities. In curriculum activities there is an opportunity for freedom to the students.