Demonstration Method of Teaching Science
As is clear from name of the method that through this method, various scientific procedures, processes and phenomenon are being shown to the students. This method covers the drawback or limitations found in the lecture method in which much importance was paid to the teacher.
This is the method in which both the teacher and students got the opportunity to put their views and ideas. Through such opportunities, students feel a sense of belonging with the teaching process. This method creates such kind of atmosphere in the classroom where students got ample opportunities to get developed.
It can be said that in demonstration method, teacher really performs the task of teaching. Before the students, certain kind of experiments are conducted by the teacher. Students observe it and ask various kind of questions concerning the experimental function performed by teacher.
After observation, students are required to explain every step taken by the teacher properly, as a result of which they feel a kind of compulsion to concentration their attention solely on the experimental process conducted by the teacher. Teacher put various kinds of questions regarding the function they observe. Thus a kind of discussion is being held by the teacher in the classroom, in which all the students get the opportunity to represent or to put forward their views and ideas.
This is an important method for science teaching as science is not only a theoretical subject but have a considerable portion of practical work also. By carrying out the successful demonstration activities in teaching process, a teacher can provide concrete experiences to the students. Through this method, students get opportunities to play active role in learning process, as a result of which their faculties of observation and reasoning get exercised and developed properly.
Demonstration method can be used in science teaching for attaining number of purposes. It can be used while beginning a new lesson or unit; as such demonstration when prescribed for the first time to a group of students will stimulate interest and curiosity among them.
This can also be used to represent various scientific methods and techniques. Through it, students can learn to use and operate various scientific equipments. Through this method, students can also be taught the procedures by which they can take accurate readings of various equipments.
Teacher can taught the students the manner in which they can apply scientific concepts in their daily life through this method. Various kinds of demonstrations can be done by the teacher to show the activities by which they can sort out various kinds of scientific problems.
Steps taken in Demonstration Method:
Some specific kinds of steps are being taken under demonstration method to impart information of various scientific concepts and facts to the students. As this method is used to maximum extent by science teachers, thus it is necessary to explain all the necessary steps in length, which are as follows:
1. In the first step, necessary planning is made out. All the preparations are done which are required for demonstration of the subject. While making plans and preparations, it is necessary for the teacher to keep in mind the subject matter and the objectives he intends to achieve.
Teacher should have thorough knowledge of the matter or the subject, for which he should not hesitate from going through the text book of the class. Through such process, his knowledge will get revive and he will find himself in a better condition to put relevant information in front of the students effectively and properly.
An important step taken at this time is drawing up an appropriate kind of lesson plan, in which proper place should be provided to list of principles which are to be explained to students and list of experiments which are to be demonstrated to the students.
Through this, function of teacher will get a systematic form. Teacher should understand this fact that nothing discourages a student more than a badly prepared lesson. Therefore, each and every experiment should be rehearsed under the similar kind of conditions which prevail at the time of demonstration. All the requisite for the demonstration work can be collected by the teacher through such rehearsal function.
It is very important that each and everything should be arranged in a proper way by which it can be ensured that teacher will not find any kind of interruption and problem in demonstration. Thus, in the first step, teacher prepares himself and all the necessary things with the help of which he can conduct his function properly and without problem.
2. In the second step, teacher introduces the lesson to the students. It is important to first motivate the students to learn the information, as without it, they cannot be prepared to understand it. Teacher should introduce the lesson in a problematic manner to the students by which students can understand the significance of topic properly. It is a fact that if a teacher motivates the students successfully, then half of his work gets done.
Here it is important for the teacher to understand that the manner in which he begins a lesson play an important role in defining the success with which he will carry out the function of demonstration. Teacher should make use of all the information by which he can perform this function enthusiastically and cheerfully. For this purpose, he can make use of his personal experiences also. He can also narrate some interesting story to the students, which is related with the present topic. He should realise the value of interesting demonstration.
The intention of teacher should be to carry out such demonstration in the class by which students get motivated to ask various kinds of questions and to get more information regarding the topic through different sources. Teacher should not intend to begin the demonstration in lively manner, but it is his duty to keep the atmosphere of class alive till the time lesson does not get completed.
Such experiments should be introduced by the teacher at frequently intervals by which attention of the students get renewed through its striking and shocking results.
3. After introducing the lesson, teacher then take all the steps by which subject matter can be presented properly and effectively. While doing this, teacher should keep in mind that lesson should not consist of dry bones of an academic course, but it is important to include some excited contents in the subject. Teacher should perform his function on broad basis.
Actual lesson can be related to certain specific topic, but teacher can treat it in a narrow sense. He can also widen the scope of this function by introducing various experiences, tales and audio visual aids. An important feature of able teacher is that he will consider his lesson incomplete till he does not discuss with the students the many and varied illustrations and applications of scientific principles in the daily life.
Teacher should be so able to take illustrations of various branches of the science, as through it, he can keep the information in front of students effectively and precisely. Students should be encouraged with every possible measure by the teacher to sort out various problems which they confront in getting information of various scientific concepts and facts.
While performing his function, teacher should make use of well thought and judicious kind of questions. Questions should be asked in a well arranged manner. Teacher should aim at providing maximum possible information regarding the concept to the students. He should not try to hide any information from the students.
Teacher should perform his function in such a way that a desire gets developed or arise among the students to know those facts which they do not know. Without proper delivering the lesson, no teacher can perform his function successfully.
While delivering the lesson or important information, teacher should keep pitch of the voice to uniform pattern. He should speak at a slow speed with which every student can understand what he is saying. Not only this, he should make use of simple language and correct pronunciation should be delivered by him.
Teacher should know the art of making use of voice in effective manner. He should manipulate his tongue in such a way that a pleasant kind of voice get arise from him by which students do not get bore at any time. Student should understand this fact that he will keep on talking continuously than a monotonous atmosphere will get developed in the classroom, for which he should give proper opportunities to the students also to speak and to put their views forward.
The function of narration of experience should be performed by teacher in such a way that students feel that they are listening some story or experience from their friend. It is only through such kind of friendly atmosphere that teaching process can be done in effective manner.
4. In the fourth step, teacher performs the experiment in front of students. He should put work at the demonstration table in effective way as students consider this work as model for them. In the practical class, unsatisfactory result will develop if the demonstration will be made in unclear and untidy manner.
Experimentation work should be performed with utmost care and results should be written down in clear and striking form. No illicit means should be employed by the teacher to carry out the experiment. He should encourage the students from time to time by which their level of confidence gets increased.
Experimentation work should be conducted in simple and speedy manner. It becomes difficult for the teacher to achieve purposes of demonstration if duration of time is long and use of complicated apparatus is being made out. Throughout the lesson, proper consideration should be paid to the fact that experimentation work should be well spaced. Teacher should not try to finish experiments speedily or in short period of time.
Teacher should try to keep the number of experiments minimum as large number of experiments can make the topic unclear. Provision of extra apparatus should be kept near the demonstration table as much of time can be saved through this. The manner in which apparatus are to be arranged should be conducted in a proper sequence.
5. In demonstration lesson, chalk board is a very useful aid. This apparatus is used for wring important results and principles in summarized form. Not only this, it is on the black board that teacher draws various sketches and diagrams. Black board is very important for a teacher because of which sometimes experts consider it to be an index of a teacher's ability.
Teacher should know the art of writing on the black board. Writing should be done on a very neat and systematic manner. Proper spacing should be left in between the letters and words, as it makes the written matter more attractive. Teacher should begin to write from left hand corner of the board. He should not begin second line until fine has got extended across the chalk board.
All the signs used in science should be written at same place in the similar way. Teacher should know the art of making proper utilisation of available space of the black board. While drawing diagrams, it is necessary for the teacher to mention the names of every part of them so that students can understand them properly and thoroughly.
6. If students do not copy the information written by teacher on the blackboard in their note books, then the demonstration lesson will remain incomplete. Record of such information will help for the future reference.
Teacher should ask the students to note down the information written by him on the black board in their note books by which they can refer to it in the future also. It is duty of the teacher to ensure that all the students are copying matter from the black board properly, for which he should frequently go to the seats of individual students.
Before discussing about the merits and demerits of this method, it is first important to mention the features which make a demonstration to be successful. The main features of a good demonstration are as follows:-
i. A good demonstration should be displayed to the students from such a place from where all of the students present in the class can view it properly. For this purpose, demonstration table should be arranged at appropriate height.
ii. There should be proper provision of lighting and ventilation in the classroom by which comfortable kind of atmosphere can be developed by the teacher, as in such kind of atmosphere, learning process takes place at higher speed or pace.
iii. Teacher should not make use of very complex apparatus. Not only this, size of used apparatus should be large enough so that all the students can view them properly.
iv. Topics should be demonstrated at proper pace by the teacher, otherwise, students will find it difficult to follow the demonstrations properly.
v. To make students aware of the objectives of the demonstration, teacher must give due consideration to the major points in the demonstration.
vi. For recording the data, students should be provided with ample time.
When to Use:
This method can be used by the teacher when the number of students is large in the classroom and number of apparatus available in the institution is also insufficient. This method can prove to be one of the best methods for teaching science to students of secondary classes.
However, this method is not a preferred method of teaching by a teacher in the context of the prescribed syllabus which has to be covered by a teacher in limited period of time.