59 important Questions on Constitution of India & Indian polity



1. What is a Censure Motion?

Censure motion is moved against the Council of Ministers, a group of ministers or as individual Minister for the failure to perform duties. Censure motion must be specific and self- explanatory, stating the reasons for its adoption.

2. Distinguish between the auditing and accounting functions of the CAG of India.

The Comptroller and Auditor-General is doing the auditing of both the Union as well as
state levels. But with respect to accounting, he is doing only for state governments.

3. Distinguish between a starred question and an unstarred one asked in the Parliament.

Starred questions are distinguished by an asterick. These questions are to be answered orally. Supplementary questions may be asked.

Unstared questions are answered in writing. Supplementary questions are not allowed.

4. What is contempt of Parliament?

Contempt of Parliament is the crime of obstructing the Parliament in the carrying out of its functions, or of hindering any Member of Parliament in the performance of his or her duties.

5. What were the two major considerations to have the Governor appointed and not elected?

The Governor is appointed and not elected because in state their cannot be dual head. Chif Minister is already elected and acting as real executive along with council of Ministers.

Governor is also acting as a agent of Centre in State because our federation is called as Union of States.

6. What is criminalization of politics?

What is criminalization of policies:

In political parties, the influence of the people with a criminal background and the increasing number of such people in the elective organizations is called criminalization of politics.

7. How is the President of India elected?

The President of India is elected by the Indian citi¬zens by an indirect voting system. By proportional representation system of single transferable vote an electoral college elects the President of India.

8. What is casting vote?

In Lok Sabha or in Legislative Assembly, when on MLA gets votes equally in support on against then the speaker of the House gives his opinion and this is called casting vote.

9. What is the importance of Right to Constitutional Remedies?

What is the importance of Right to Constitutional Remedies?: By the Right to Constitutional Remedies (Art. 32 & 228) an individual can go to Supreme Court or High Courts for the safeguard of his fundamental rights.

10. Explain the following terms:

(i) Dissolution of the House.

(ii) Prorogation of the House.

(iii) Adjournment of the business of the House.

(i) A dissolution ends the very life of the Lok Sabha so that all matters pending before the House Lapse with the dissolution.

(ii) Prorogation merely terminates a session.

(iii) Adjournment doesn't put an end to the existence of a session of the parliament but merely postpones the further transaction of business for a specific time, hours, days or week.

11. What is Consolidated Fund of India?

Art. 266 established the consolidated:

Funds of India and of the states. All revenues received by the government of India, all loans raised by the government by issue of treasury bills, loan, advances and all money received by the government in repayment of loans shall from the consolidated fund of India.

12. To what extent can the president withhold his assent to a Bill already passed by the parliament

Instead of either refusing assent of giving assent, except the money bills, the president may return the Bill for reconsideration of the Houses with a message requesting them to reconsider it. If however, the House pass the Bill again with or without amendments, the president shall have no power to withhold his assent from the Bill.

13. What is India's 'Look East' Policy?

The Look East Policy is started by the ex-prime minister I.K. Gujral. It emphasises to improve the social, economic and cultural relations with countries situated in the eastern and south eastern Asia.

14. What is meant by 'empowerment of women' in India?

The aim of empowerment of women in India is to make them self-dependent by giving them proper representation in socio-economic and political set up.

15. What is meant by 'double jeopardy'?

The prohibition against double reopardy is contained in cl (2) of Art. 20, which runs that no persons shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.

16. What are the protections afforded to Scheduled Tribes in the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution?

The Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution contains under Art. 244 (1) provisions as to the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.

17. In what ways can the President of India ascertain the views of the Supreme Court on a particular bill?

Under Art. 143 of the constitution, it is ascertained.

18. What is the common point between Articies 14 and 226 of the Indian Constitution?

Arbitrriness Redressal of arbitrariness of state action in any form.

19. Who and what does the Indian Parliament consist of?

The Parliament of India consists of the President and two Houses, the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

19. What is Habeas Corpus?

Habeas Corpus:

It is a writ, by which the court can cause any person who has been detained/imprisoned to be physically brought before the court. The court then examines the reasons of his detention.

20. What is the special facility provided to the oinguistic minorities under Article 350 A?

Article 350(A) inserted by the Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act provides for local authorities in every state to extend adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to the children of linguistic minority groups.

21. How can a judge of the Supreme Court be removed?

A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from office by the President on the basis of a resolution passed by the Parliament, by a special majority on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

22. How is the Election Commission of India constituted?

The Election Commission of India consists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. They are appointed by the President for a term of six years.

23. What is a point of order? When can it be raised?

A member may raise a point of order if the proceedings of the house do not follow the normal rules. The presiding officer decides whether the point of order raised by the member should be allowed.

24. What is a privilege motion?

Privilege motion is a motion moved by a member if he feels that a minister has committed a breach of privilege of the house or of any one or more of its members by withholding facts of a case or by giving a distorted version of acts.

25. State the difference between Council of Ministers and the Cabinet.

Council of Ministers include cabinet ministers, ministers of state and deputy minister. The council of ministers is collectively responsible to the lower house of the Parliament. It is the cabinet which makes all the government policies.

26. How is the Vice President of India elected?

The Vice President is elected by members of the two houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote.

27. What is meant by 'Sine-die' adjournment?

'Sine-die' adjournment terminates a sitting of the House without any definite date being fixed for the next-sitting. Usually the speaker adjourns the House sine die on the last day of its session.

28. What is the import of the 84th Amendment of the Indian constitution?

The delimitation of constituencies has been based on 1991 census so that states showing good record of family planning may not be penalised because of low rate of growth of population in 2001 census.

29. Under which Article of the constitution can the union government play its role in setting inter-state water dispute?

Art. 262 deals with inter-state dispute. It says - parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute of complain with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-state river or river valley.

30. What is the role of Protem speaker?

As soon as the new Lok Sabha isconstituted, the President appoints a protem speaker who is generally the senior most member of the House for administering oath to the Lok Sabha members and presiding over the election of a new speaker.

31. What is meant by the Lameduck session of the legislature?

It is a session held when a new parliament has been elected as a result of general election but meets for the last tifne before it completes its term and is dissolved.

32. What is meant by the fringe areas in the sphere of local government in India?

Those jurisdictional areas of power, where the local Panchayat and the above functionaries converge or the interface between such units of administration.

33. Explain the Local Area Development Scheme of the Members of Parliament.

The Scheme was started during the period of Narsimha Rao in 1998s. In this scheme every member of parliament will be given two crores of rupees every year for the development of local area of their constituency.

34. What is Ethics Committee of Lok Sabha?

The Lok Sabha has constituted an Ethics Committee of the house to deal with the moral and Ethical behaviour of the members and to examine cases referred to it. The committee will consist of 9 members including leader of opposition of Lok Sabha.

35. Why is it said that the centre has absolute veto over State Legislature?

An Governor has the power to reserve the Bill for the consideration of the president. Once the Bill is reserved for the consideration of the president, the subsequent enactment of the Bill is in the hands of the president and the Governor shall have no further part an its carrier.

36. What is Call Attention Motion?

A member may, with prior permission of the speaker, call the attention of a minister to any matter of urgent public importance and the minister may make a brief statement regarding the matter or ask for time to make a statement.

37. When is the device of joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament not available?

When Money Bills or Constitutional Bills are in question the device of joint sitting of both the Houses of parliament is not available.

38. What is vote on account?

Under Article 116 (a) Lok Sabha has the power to grant money to the executive for the expenses of the government until the appropriation Act is passed, is called Vote-on- account.

39. What is care taker Government?

The dispose of governmental affairs in the meantime, when there is no permanent governmental bodies exists in accordance with constitutional norms.

40. Do you justify PM's entry into Parliament through the Rajya Sabha.

PM's entry into Parliament through Rajya Sabha is irrational but not unconstitutional. PM being the leader of the Lok Sabha should come through Lok Sabha election.

41. What is a privilege Motion?

If any member of the Legislature hides any information or keeps secret from the house any information or presents it wrongly, other member can pass this motion.

42. What is contempt of Parliament?

Any act by which procedure of a house of Parliament, its member of officer is obstructed or disobeyed, it is contempt of Parliament.

43. Who presides over the Joint-Session of the two Houses of the Indian Parliament over a non-money bill?

Speaker of the Lok Sabha and in his absence any such person as may be determined by rules of procedure prescribed, shall preside over the joint-session of the two houses.

44. Is there any provision to impeach the Governor of a State?

There is no provision for the impeachment of the Governor of State. He holds his office during the pleasure of the president.

45. How is the Vice-Prersident of India elected?

By an electoral college consisting of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, through a system of proportional representation and means of single transferable vote, by secrete ballot is adopted.

46. What is the status of the Right to Property in the Indian Constitution?

Right to property was the part of fundamental rights before 44th Amendment 1976. Now it is legal right under article 300 A.

47. What is the maximum gap between two sessions of the Indian Parliament?
Less than six months.

48. What do Rule 184 and 193 in parliamentary procedure signify

Rule 193 signifies that contempt motions are different from non-confident motion. Rule 193 signifies that the speaker or the chairperson can allow a short time for discussion on a matter of importance.

49. What is meant by 'Giyral Doctrine'? Write its specific principles.

It is a foreign policy doctrine propounded by Mr. J. K. Giyral, India's former Prime Minister. It emphasizes relations of India with neighboring countries in trade and political co-operation. It respects sovereignty, equality and privacy of matters for every motion.

50. Give a brief account of C.MP (common Minimum Programme) of the united front Government at the centre.

It includes all important aspects of polices. Of every party. With emphasis on socialistic pattern, eradication of poverty and unemployment, development of agriculture and villages, prevention of misuse of Article 365 etc.

51. Write any four fundamental duties prescribed in the Constitution or India.

Four fundamental duties prescribed in the constitution of India are:
(i) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
(ii) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
(iii) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
(iv) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.

52. What specific provisions exist in the constitution of India about child labour?

Article-24 provides that children below the age of fourteen years shall not be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

53. What is Article 356 in the Indian constitution? Comment.
Article-356 relates to failure of constitutional machinery in states. It empowers the president. To assume the functions of the governmental of state to himself. It is popularly called "Presidential Rule in the state".

54. What is the major recommendation of Dinesh Goswami committee?

This committee on Election Reforms recommended constitution of a multi-member Election Commission, preparatin of voters, identity cards and prevention of criminalisation of elections.

55. What role can the Union Government play in setting inter-state water disputes?

Under Article-262, Parliament is empowered to adjudicate any disputes regarding use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in any inter-state river valley.

56. The Write of mandamus cannot be granted against certain persons. Who are they?

Mandamus cannot be issued against a private individual or organisation; judges of the court when working in the capacity of the judge, the governor of a state or the president of India.

57. What constitutional provisions make the office of the comptroller and Auditor General of India independent?

Comptroller and Auditor General's salaries etc. are charged on the consolidated fund of India and cannot be varied to his disadvantage. He can be removed only by a special procedure. He is not eligible for any other office after retirement.

58. How do you distinguish between a Money Bill and a Finance Bill?

A Money Bill is related to any one or more of the provisions of Article-110. A Financial Bill may relate to any other provisions also. All Money Bills are Financial Bills, but not vice-versa.

59. What are the functios of the Human Rights Commission of India?

For protection of Human Rights, the commission recommends measures:
i. to make laws, implement treaties.
ii. to aware people about Human Rights.
iii. to investigate violation of Human Rights and to promote acts for taking such measures