What according to the Supreme Court, constituted. "The basic features. Which it upheld in cases known as (CSE 1997) (i) Keshavananda Bharti vs state of Kerala?

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The Supreme Court has laid down the theory of basic features, as the limitation upon the amending power of parliament. The supreme court in the case of Keshavananda Bharti vs State of Kerala. 1973 held that parliament cannot amend the constitution, so as to destroy the basic features of it In this case, the court has not any final list of these basic features. But it enumerated some provisions our constitution as the basic features in this case. They are

i. Supremacy of the constitution.

ii. Republican and democratic forms of the government.

iii. Secular character of the constitution.

iv. Separation of powers, between the Executive and the Judiciary.

v. Federal character of the constitution.

vi. Dignity of the individual secured by various freedoms and basic rights in part III.

vii. Mandate to build a welfare state contained in part iv.

viii. Unity and integrity of the nation.

ix. Parliamentary democracy.

x. In the case of Mineral Mills- 1980, the Supreme Court has added some more features to this list. They are

i. Limited power of parliament to amend the constitution

ii. Harmony and balance between fundamental rights and directive principles.

iii. Fundamental rights in certain cases

iv. Power of judicial review

v. Independence of judiciary


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