Which Plants are used as a Source of Drugs & Narcotics?



(1) Sarpgandha:

Rauwolfia serpentina. Root gives reserpine alkaloid which is used for blood pressure, snake bite and mental disorders.

(2) Opium:

(afeem) Papaver somniferum. Fruit (capsule) gives morphine, codine. Which is narcotic, sedative and given in relieving pain.

(3) Quinine:

Cinchona officinalis, Calisaya. Bark used for malaria. Coptis teeta of Arunachal Pradesh and Artemesia annua of Uttarakhand also yield antimalarial drugs.

(4) Belladona:

Atropa belladona. Dried leaves and roots are useful. Leaves have atropine and Hyoscymus alkaloid. It is used as Narcotic, diuretic, antispasmodic, Leaves are stimulant of CNS relieving pain.

(5) Datura:

Datura staramonium. Fruit juice is important for removing dandruff, for bronchital ailments.

(6) Amla:

Emblica officinalis. Fruits are diuretic laxative for hoemeorage, used in diarrhea, dysentry.

(7) Kuchla:

Strycnos nux-vomica. Seed are used as a source for alkaloid strichnum. Used in Paralysis and mental disorder.

(8) Senna:

Leaves and pods of Cassica angustifolia and C. acutifolia are purgative and anthelmintic.

(9) Isabgol:

Seeds husks of Plantago ovala for constipation and gastric ulcers.

(10) Digitalis:

Leaves otdigitalis purpurea and D. lanara as cardiac stimulant, relieving dropsy and stimulating renal secretions.

(11) Aconite:

Roots of Aconitum napellus (highly poisonous) are used for cholera and leprosy.

(12) Liquorice:

Root of Glycyrrhiza glabra is used for cough and bronchitis.

(13) Santonin:

Flowers of Artemesia cina and A. maritima yield anthelminthetic drug. Artemesin is antimalarial drug obtained from A. annua.

(14) Nux-vomica:

Fruits and seeds of Stryclirous nux-vomica.

(15) Dioscorea (Yam):

Its tubers are edible. The extract diosgenin is starting point of several cortico­steroid drugs and contraceptive. Dioscorea is one of the most over-exploited plant.

(16) Vasaca:

Leaves of Adhatoda vasica yield an expectorant drug against bronchitis.

(17) Taxol:

Anticancer drug got from Taxus baccata (gymnosperm). Podophyllum hexandrum also contain anticancer ingredients.