List of 5 sample essays for xat paper on 1. Can democracy and development go together smoothly? 2. Global Warming 3. What were the objects of the U.N.- sponsored elections in Cambodia? 4. Present a complete picture of India's efforts for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council 5. State the comprehensive structural reforms undertaken to improve the Indian economy since 1991.
Sample essays for xat
1. Can democracy and development go together smoothly?
Economic backwardness, illiteracy, population growth, environmental degradation, corruption, regionalism and lot other factor are influencing Indian democracy with adverse consequences.
Among them most of the factors is the legacy of British rule. The Indian system is, at present, going through a phase of transition from the state of underdevelopment to development.
Even after five decade of independence, India continues to exhibit the basic characteristics of underdeveloped economy and social life. Among he factors posing a serious threat to democracy economic backwardness is of much importance. It express itself in the from of poverty.
Although poverty is rarely about the only one thing, the bottom line is always hunger - the lack of food, but it entails psychological suffering as well as povyerlessness, voicelessness, dependence, shame and humiliation.
According to the planning commission's estimate for 1993-94, the number of poor in the country was estimated at 18.1 per cent of the total population. In March 1997, however, after accepting the Lakdawala committee's report, the planning commission revised its estimates of the number of poor to 35.97 per cent and 320 million in 1993-94, with a monthly income as low as Rs. 264.
Mass poverty, which afflicts nearly one-third of the population, is a serious problem that negates the essence of social justice and equality in the Indian democratic set-up. But poverty does lead to destabilization of other kinds. There may be mass migration from one part of the country to the other in search of jobs and other facilities.
This leads an imbalance in regional growth, unplanned urbanization, and pressure on civic amenities etc. In order to fulfill their basic needs and sometimes as a result of frustration or insecurity, the poor may take to anti social activities, leading to a law and order problem.
Poverty is also directly related to gender bias and over population, a serious threat to Indian democracy.
We have the examples of the democratic countries, which fall under the developed economy such as USA, UK, Japan, and France etc. Basically, a democratic country gives equal opportunity to all for economic development.
Thus, we cannot say that democracy and development cannot go together smoothly.
2. Global Warming
Global Warming is a catch phrase for the increase in the globe's mean temperature due to build up of atmospheric greenhouse gases and the negative effects of rising temperature like melting glaciers, high levels of oceans or changing precipitation patterns.
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution atmospheric concentration of C02 have increased by 30%, Methane concentration by 100% and Nitrous Oxide concentration by about 15%. These increases have enhanced the heat-trapping capability of the Earth's atmosphere.
Humanity's greenhouse gas emissions have already disturbed the global energy balance by about 1 % of the net incoming solar energy.
The combustion of coal, oil and natural gas accounts for most of the heat-trapping greenhouse gases emitted by human activities.
One of the ill effects of global warming is thought to be the rise in the sea level due to melting of glaciers and ice-caps at poles. It is estimated that global sea-level is rising at the rate of 1-3 mm/year. This will result in the submergence of low-lying geographical regions.
Global warming activates the hydrological cycle along with the warming of the environment. It brings forth unpredictable climate change causing drought at certain places and cyclones and heavy shower at some places.
The global warming is likely to reduce the availability of agricultural land as river deltas may be inundated due to rise in sea level.
Agricultural pests may prosper to cause widespread damage to crop at increased temperature.
Several global initiatives have been taken to tackle the problem of global warming.
The latest among them is the Kyoto Protocol. As per the Kyoto Protocol, the countries are to ensure that green-house gases do not exceed their assigned amounts so that their overall emissions of such gases are limited to at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008-2012.
3. What were the objects of the U.N.- sponsored elections in Cambodia?
To give effect to the Paris peace settlements, the UN took the charge to conduct peaceful and fair elections in Cambodia. Before the elections, there was widespread pessimism in many countries about the elections.
But to be fair enough, the United Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia (UNTAC) performed a commendable job in conducting the elections with 90 per cent of the registered voter turn-out.
Main objects of the UN were as follows:
(a) To fulfill the desires of the Paris peace settlement.
(b) To establish a real democratic government.
(c) To create popularly represented constituent assembly.
(d) Lastly to have a lasting peace in Cambodia.
The UN was greatly successful in conducting elections in Cambodia, viewing the percentage of voter turn-out. It also largely remained violence-free.
However, the UN's extraordinary performance in Cambodia has been possible due to the unusually high interest shown by the international community to bring the saga of Cambodian suffering to an end.
But the role of the Khmer Rouge has been dubious, which casts a shadow on the prospects of peace in Cambodia. It also signed the Paris peace agreement in 1991 and as a signatory it should have helped in implementing the agreement. Instead, it remained a prisoner of its own past image.
Moreover, the constituent assembly would face major challenge in bringing different forces in Cambodian polity into the mainstream of democracy and peaceful public life.
This challenge would be minimised, if all renegade forces form a part of national re-conciliation. Since the Cambodian economy has been in doldrums for the last 14 years, people are facing financial hardships. At this juncture there is a need to revive the shattered economy with full utilisation of natural resources and less dependence on international aid.
Thus, now onwards, after the successful completion of elections, the future of Cambodia rests on the shoulders of the people of Cambodia.
4. Present a complete picture of India's efforts for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council
The UN needs to be restructured to present the geopolitical realities of the 21st century. India being the largest democracy, home to one sixth of mankind, fourth largest economy, one of the largest peace-keeping contributor to the UN and given its credentials world peace and interests of the developing countries, rightly deserves a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
As a result, India has been campaigning for last few years at different world forums and bilateral meeting with the different countries to bring the issue to centre stage in which she has largely succeeded.
The world at large has accepted to expand UN Security council. India, along with Japan, Germany and Brazil has formed a group of Four Nation to push ahead this agenda.
In May 2005, G-4 has put forward a draft resolution calling for an expansion of UNSC. The African Union has also introduced as separate resolution in this regard and talks are still going on between G-4 and AU to present a combine front, through much has not come out of it as yet.
Apart from this, India has received a lot of support from a majority of countries, mostly developing, who have pledged individual support to India's candidature.
However, few countries like Pakistan, Argentina, South Korea, and Italy have also formed a coffee club to oppose G- 4 resolution. Talks are going on with these countries too on an individual level.
5. State the comprehensive structural reforms undertaken to improve the Indian economy since 1991
The Indian economy since 1991 has been undergoing constant and drastic economic reforms. These reforms have resulted in a shift from the inward-oriented policy of the past to an outward-looking one.
The trend towards a liberal economic policy had funded its full expression in the early 1990s with the Government of India announcing a series of packages of stabilisation and structural policy reforms.
The current economic policy reforms seems to have been guided mainly by concerns regarding the globalisation of the Indian economy, in proving internal and external competitiveness, private sector participation and removal of inadequacies or constraints.
At present, the plans focus on growth targets per capita income of GDP, and the development strategy is to be indirectly planning to promote the private sector.
Reforms undertaken to improve the Indian economy since 1991 is:
I. Abolition of industrial and trade licensing.
II. Removal of state monopolies, privatization and disinvestment.
III. Liberalisation of financial and capital market.
IV. Liberal regime for FDI, portfolio investment, foreign technology
V. Import institution and export of primary goods, no import bias
VI. Reduction and rationalisation of taxes and duties disperson
VII. Sector-neutral monetary, fiscal and tariff policies
VIII. Abolition of exchange control, full convertibility on current account.
IX. Abolition of all administered prices essential on goods except for few strategic sectors.
X. Decentralisation sound institutional framework, degree of civil service reforms.
XI. Rationalisation of structure, and concessions being phased out.
XII. The removal of quantitative restrictions being phased out
XIII. The removal of quantitative restrictions on imports and a consistent decline in average and peak import tariffs.
These reforms probably led to the higher growth performance in the post-reform era. The overall growth in the post-reform era was accelerated by a relatively higher growth in the service sector.
To some extent, during the first phase (1992-93 to 1996-97) the spurt in industrial activities and output could also be noticed. The growth rate of 6.1 per cent in real output during the post-reform period (i.e. 1992-93 to 2002-03) was slightly higher than the pre-reform decade of the eighties.
This was achieved through competitiveness and efficiency gains. Recent statistics show that India's external trade has increased significantly during the post-reform period.
To be precise, the share of India's export in world mercantile trade has increased from 0.52 per cent in 1990, to 0.8 per cent in 2002. During the reform period India's exports have increased from US $18.1 billion in 1991-91 to US $52.8 billion in 2002-03, while India's imports have increased from US $24.1 billion in 1990-91 to US $61.6 billion in 2002-03.
The higher growth in India's exports over imports has led to a decline of India's trade deficit.