According to Durkheim, "Education is the action exercised by the older generations upon those who are not yet ready for social life. Its object is to awaken and develop in the child those physical, intellectual and moral states which are required of him both by his society as a whole and by the milieu for which he is specially destined". This action, the socialization of new generations, necessarily takes place in all societies, but it assumes many different forms in respect place in all societies, but it assumes many different forms in respect of the social groups and institutions involved, and in respect of its own diversity and complexity.We may consider, first, the extent to which education is a specialized social activity. In the simplest societies, where there is in any case little specialization of function, education is not organized as a separate activity; it is provided by the family, the kin group and the society as a whole through participation in their everyday routines of living. But in many primitive societies above the simplest level formal instruction is given at puberty, before initiation as an adult member of the society. In addition to mass instruction, each boy or girl is tutored by some close relative who has noted defects in the pupil's character and now takes pains to correct them.