Get complete information on Iron and steel industry

1. Though the first iron and steel industry was established in India in 1873, the real development began after 1907 when the Tata Iron and Steel Company was set up at Jamshedpur.

2. It is an important industry because industries such as ship-building, automobiles, locomotives, machine and tools, defence equipment depend on this industry.

3. India at present is the tenth largest producer of steel in the world. There are six integrated steel plants and 173 mini steel plants.

4. An integrated steel plant is one where all the processes are carried out in one complex, from handling of raw material, coke making, steel making, rolling and shaping of the steel.

5. A Mini Steel Plant uses steel scrap in electric furnaces and makes liquid steel which is turned into ingots.

6. Iron and Steel Industry is controlled by both private and public sectors.

(i) Private Sector Plant

(a) Tata Iron and Steel Company

(ii) Public Sector Plant

(a) Bhilai Steel Plant

(b) Durgapur Steel Plant

(c) Rourkela Steel Plant

(d) Bokaro Steel Plant

(e) Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Plant

(f) Indian Iron and Steel Plant

(g) Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant

(h) Salem Steel Plant

The raw materials required for the Iron and Steel Industry are:

(a) Iron ore.

(b) Fuel (Coal, H.E.P., Thermal Power, Coking coal).

(c) Ferro Alloys (Tungsten, Manganese, Nickel, etc.-any one of these).

(d) Fluxing Material-used for smelting of ores and to remove impurities in the form of slag, (dolomite, limestone or gypsum).

(e) Private Sector Plant

(a) Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)

- It is located at Tatanagar near Jamshedpur in Jharkhand.

- It obtains plentiful supply of water from rivers Kharkai and Subarnarekha.

- Cheap H.E.P. is supplied by Damodar Valley Project.

- Iron ore is obtained from Singhbum (Jharkhand) and Mayurbhanj (Orissa).

- Coal is obtained from Jharia.

-- Limestone and dolomite-Gangpur (Orissa) and Singhbhum (Jharkhand).

- Manganese-Naomundi (Orissa)

- Skilled and unskilled labour is obtained from West Bengal, Bihar, U.P. etc.

- Jamshedpur is well connected by road and railways to major consuming areas.

- Kolkata, a river port is closeby.

(ii) Public Sector Plants

(а) Bhilai Steel Plant

- It was the first integrated steel plant to be set up and the biggest in India.

- It is located in Bhilai (Chhattisgarh).

- Iron ore is obtained from Durg and Bastar districts.

- Coal is got from Korba, Raniganj, Jharia.

- Limestone is brought from Nandini mines and Manganese from Balaghat (M.P.).

- Water is supplied from Tendula Canal.

- Electricity is obtained from Korba Thermal Power Station.

- Bhilai is well connected by railways to Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi.

- This plant mainly produces rails, railway sleepers, beams, angles and pig iron.

(b) Durgapur Steel Plant

- Durgapur Steel Plant (West Bengal) was set up with British assistance in 1959.

- It obtains the following from:

Iron ore - Singhbhum (Jharkhand) and Keonjhar (Orissa), coking coal from Jharia and Raniganj.

- Limestone - Birmitrapur Manganese - Keonjhar Dolomite - Birmitrapur

- Water supply from river Damodar.

- Excellent transport facilities situated on Kolkata-Delhi main railway line.

- Kolkata provides port facilities.

- This plant makes steel bars, tools, stainless steel and pig iron.

(c) Rourkela Steel Plant

- The Rourkela Steel Plant was set up with the help of German assistance (Kripps and Demang).

- Iron ore - Bonaigarh, Mayurbhanj.

- Coal is obtained from Raniganj, Jharia.

- Limestone, Dolomite - Birmitrapur.

Manganese ore - Noamundi.

- H.E.P. is obtained from the Hirakud Power Project.

- Located on the main Mumbai-Kolkata S.E. Railway line, it helps in transportation.

- It specialises in the production of heavy steel plates for ships locomotives and helps in the manufacture of fertilizers and chemicals..

- It supplies pipes for the Mathura petroleum refinery, special steel for the vehicles of the Indian Space Satellite Programme and supplies heavy plates to Vishakapatnam Ship-yards.

(d) Bokaro Steel Plant

- The Bokaro Steel Plant was set up at Bokaro in Jharkhand in 1972 with Russian assistance. It is located on the bank of the River Damodar.

- Iron ore - Bonaigarh,

Noamundi (Orissa)

Coal - Bokaro, Jharia coalfields

Limestone - Palamau (Jharkhand)

Dolomite - Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)

- Thermal Power - Bokaro and Chandrapur plants. H.E.P. is supplied by Damodar Valley Project.

- Water is supplied by the river Damodar.

- Kolkata provides essential port facilities.

- This plant produces crude steel and pig iron.

(e) Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Plant

- Originally known as Mysore Iron and Steel Company but was brought under public sector in. 1962 and re-named Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited.

- It is located at Bhadravati in Karnataka.

- It gets its:

Iron ore - Kemmanguddi (South of Bhadravati) Limestone - MandiGudda

Manganese - Madhya

Pradesh and Maharashtra

Charcoal - Kadurand Shimoga districts

- H.E.P. is obtained from Mahatma Gandhi H.E.P. Station and Sharavati H.E.P. station.

- Plenty of skillfed and unskilled labour is available.

- Well connected by rail and road to commercial centres and ports.

- Water from the river Bhadra.

- It produces pig iron, special steel and steel castings.

(f) Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO)

- The three iron and steel plants at Kulti, Hirapur and Burnpur were merged together and are known as the Indian Iron and Steel Company.

- It is an integrated steel plant belonging to the public sector. Taken over by the government in 1972.

- Raw materials are available from:

Coal - Raniganj, Jharia.

Manganese - Balaghat, Birmitrapur.

Dolomite, - Gangapur (Orissa) Limestone

- Plenty of skilled and unskilled labour.

- Kolkata port helps in the export of finished goods.

- Water is obtained from the river Damodar.

- This plant produces rails, galvanized sheets and bullets.

(g) Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant

- It is the latest integrated plant, most modern and a unique location as a seaport.

- It is the first sea-shore based managed by Rashtriya Ispat Nigam and the second largest producer of iron and steel in the country.

- Its raw materials are obtained from:

Iron Ore - Bailadila mines (MP).

Coking Coke - Bhalore coal mines (Jharkhand).

Limestone - Jaggayyapeta (AP)

Dolomite - Birmitrapur (Orissa)

- Vishakhapatnam is famous for its shipyards.

(h) Salem Steel Plant

- It is located in Tamil Nadu and produces world class steel and exports it to countries like U.S.A.

7. Problems of the Steel Industry in India

(а) Capital Investment is less therefore India has not exploited its resources fully.

(b) Production is less, therefore it spends a lot of money importing these items.

(c) India is far behind the advanced countries in its technological development.

(d) The per capita labour productivity is low in India. There is need to reorganize its labour force and increase the productivity. The Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) was established in 1973. It is responsible for managing the Bhilai, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bokaro, Burnpur Steel Plants. The Salem Steel Plant is also managed by SAIL.