Get Complete Information on Mechanical Analysis of Fundamental Movements



In the process of running the whole body moves in translator motion, while, some parts participate in angular motion. A running cycle consists of contact phase, swing phase, and the flying phase, while in the contact phase, one foot is in contact with ground and the other one swings in the air. In the swing and flying phase lower extremity is swinging through the air to take off to foot strike.

In contact phase, runner takes foot strike as a first step, and then takes midsupport, and, lastly, he takes off. In swing phase and the flying phase the runner follows through, then takes foreword swing, and further performs foot descent as last action in one running cycle. The dynamic parameters of runner are given blow:


The real meaning of jumping ability varies according to the game. But we can simply define jumping as the activity in which the player is producing vertical velocity for the center of gravity through plantar flexion in ankle, knee extension, hip extension, trunk, head and arm movements. During takeoff $ key factor is to utilize all positive net impulse effects for a high vertical release velocity of the center of gravity of the player. Timing of the segmental movements is a real skill factor in jumping. Hence jumping is a physical movement done to cross over distance through space following the projectile principle. If we observe the jumping activity in various games we see that in football, the good ability is needed but applied relatively seldom. In volleyball, the excellent jumping ability from physical point of view (explosive strength and jumping endurance) is a key factor.

Vertical jump involves there phases, i.e., preparatory, execution and follow through. In preparatory phase, jumping involves an erect, standing position going down towards gravity by using the gravitational force by flexing different body parts. In execution phase, it is an upward movement of the body after the downward movement till the body is detaching from the ground by means of extension of knee and hips leading to projection. In follow through, once the body is projected an individual needs to balance the body by moving different body parts and thus landing with recoiling action.

The jumping match conditions require that the players can apply their jumping abilities according to the prevailing match situation. Then, the timing in jumping and technical heading performance is important.


The mechanical factors of throwing involve ballistic movement of one segment. The imparting force must overcome the inertia of an object. But, in general, throwing is a sequential action of a chain of body segments, leading to high velocity motion of external objects. It thus results in the production of a summated velocity at the end of the chain of segment used and the path of the external object motion is curvilinear in nature, e.g., a pitcher throws a baseball, a young adult spikes, a volley ball, etc. Throwing maybe of three kinds, i.e., side arm throwing, underarm throwing and over arm throwing. The kinematics of each kind of throwing is compared below:

S.N. Phases Sidearm Throwing Underarm Throwing Over arm Throwing

1. Preparation phase 1. (a) Shoulder horizontal abduction only (b) Trunk right rotation

2. Windup (cocking) 2. NA phase

(b) Elbow extension 2. NA

2. (a) Shoulder horizontal adduction and fully external rotation closed-packed position)

(b) Trunk left rotation

(c) Prone to have shoulder impingement syndrome

Underarm Throwing

Pulling and Pushing

Pulling is an activity in which any external object is made to come nearer to the body with the help of muscle strength. In this process, a body pulls an object towards its centre of gravity by flexion and extension of body parts. Pulling has two phases; in upward phase the whole body is relaxed and in a suspended position.

From this position it is raised to the top of the bar. The chin is above the bar and the elbow flexed by contracting the required muscles. But, in downward phase, the contracting muscles return to the hanging position by performing the opposite movement of upward phase.

Pushing is to make something far from the body with the help of muscle strength. This technique has only the execution phase and involves moving a heavy object which is placed parallel to the pusher by means of flexion and extension of certain body parts using proper body weight and ground reaction force (GRF). The angle of body from the ground should be 45°.