What are the major functions of research?

1. It obtains the scientist knowledge about all educational problems. It also helps in obtaining specific knowledge about the subjects involved in the study.

2. In action research, the researchers are teachers, curriculum workers, principals, supervisors or others whose main task is to help, provide good learning experiences for pupils.

3. In it, a person tries to enable him to realise his purposes more effectively. For example: A teacher conducts his teaching more effectively. An administrator, in the education department performs his action to improve his administrative behaviour.

4. Action research is a procedure which tries to keep problem solving in close contact with reality at every stage.

5. In educational system it conduits for the progress of the technique of teaching.

6. It strengthens and emphasizes the work of the teacher.

7. It has a great utility of creating new interest and new confidence in the ability of the individual teacher.

8. Action research provides practical utility. For class-room teacher, he applies his own observations into his class-room practices to make the observed problems solved. Minor problems in the class­room can be solved by applying the teachers' intelligence.

9. Action research brings changes in the teachers. It makes them co-operative and active in facing the situation easily. It also happens to bring about changes in the behaviour, attitude and teaching performance.

10. Planning is the primary criteria in educational research as well action research. To go through the problems much in sight is needed. For solving all these problems the teacher goes on reading references, literatures and also research techniques. So theoretical learning becomes fruitful when it is practically applied in the proper situation to solve problems in action research.

11. In education, all kinds of professional workers are able to solve their practical to improve their own profession. Generally, action research helps the teacher to face day-to-day problems in the class­room. He makes himself mentally stable and active to confront the situation. He starts his lesson with full aspiration and hope.

When he is failed to get the real response, he feels dissatisfied and further he makes new moves to draw more responses. He understands the real difficulty of the pupils and finds out the causes to make his lesson effective. In action research, the teacher becomes specific, disciplined and easeful but not haphazard and general. In such attempts the teacher is able to know the individual differences and educational provisions for the students.

Analysis of Problems:

Educational research is a very detailed analysis of the present educational problem. It is not a mere description of elementary and isolated facts of nature. It prepares operational activities for the further development of the pupils. Hence the people working in the administrative, supervisory and inspecting departments of education should desire to do things better.

Research, as we take in pure physical science, is not taken like in education. By applying common sense, intelligence, insight and guidance and training of the experts it is undertaken without an inexpensive material. So, research in the field of education should be taken in a highly order to meet the situation in a smooth and effective way.

Action Research:

Research is of following types:

1. Basic Research

2. Applied Research

3. Action Research

Basic Research is termed as 'pure' or 'fundamental' research. It is aimed at the discovery of basic truth or principles. It is not immediately concerned with direct field application. Basic research emphasizes control and precision. To quote Travers, 'Basic research is designed to add to an organised body of scientific knowledge and does not produce results of immediate practical value. It is carried out in the laboratory. A good deal of equipment and apparatus is needed to carry out experiments.'

Applied research is called field research. Primarily, it is concerned with establishing relationships and testing theories in the field setting and applying to other samples of the population from which the research subjects are taken. It sacrifices controls and precision to some extent as compared with fundamental research.

Action research is similar to applied research in a lot of ways. In the present situations action research has a good deal of implications. The practitioners apply it practically at the time of their study. They do not follow the traditional experiences or the guidelines and recommendations of experts. In action research the teacher or the practitioner can take up and solve number of problems in a more systematic and scientific manner in the single class-room.

According to Dr. Corey "Action research, is the process by which practitioners attempt to study their problems scientifically in order to guide, correct and evaluate their decisions and actions". The following points show the role of action research in the field of education. Demerits of Action Research

I. 'In action research the teachers are not well acquainted with the problems. They are not also trained in scientific way to solve the problems quite easily. Every teacher leader does not able to face problems at the time of their teaching. Hence the action research fails to a great extent.'

II. 'Action research deals with those problems, whose nature are not classified in a detailed way. The problem of a school is totally different from another school. So the teacher who transfers from one school to another school may face difficulties to solve them.'

Education a Science Subject:

Now a day's education is regarded as a science subject. It includes the all-round development of the child so different educationists are interested to make the subject in a progressive way. Hence they give more emphasis on practical knowledge.

Everything should be taught in a practical way that will help the child to make his concept clear. Generally in our educational system, there is the follow on of traditional methods of teaching. This type of teaching does not help more in learning faculties.

To make the students acquainted with the clear conception and analysis of the problems the teacher resorts to many new steps and follows new techniques. This acts as real instrument in leading the students to face the learning situations in an active way.

Application of Action Research:

In our country, every state government has given emphasis and scope for its wider spread inside the state. It is not easy to make a developed field in the progressive education because of the individual differences.

Educational research covers a wide range in field of psychological topics like retardation and elimination, transfer of training, individual differences, mental measurement and psychology of the school subjects. It deals with the problems not only of individual cases but also in general field of education. In individual cases educational research studies academic achievements.

It shows the teacher's attitudes in teaching, professional, competency, instructional techniques, students' interest, their responses, etc. Educational research, as such, is not more than six to seven decades old.

Before hand, there was no systematic effort to study education in an integrated science. Modern thinkers like Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbert and others protested against the traditional methods of teaching and learning process. In 19th century, psychologists pointed the actual difficulties in human learning.

Both in educational institutions and business, in organisational cases, educational research spreads in a very swift and effective way. These organization's actions are as given below:

(i) Private concerns. Consulting organizations, text book publishers.

(ii) Voluntary associations. Teachers, associations, school board associations, advisory councils or committees

(iii) Autonomous bodies. Some institutions which are not directed by the state government organise some research projects and programmes in education at their own expenditure.

(iv) Government agencies. The administrative bodies like the ministry of education has taken further steps for the further development of education and different types of research projects have been newly evolved.

(v) University. University has prescribed the post-graduate branches like M. A. in Education, M. Ed. for higher studies in education. It has also prepared new schemes for research projects. Research scholars are also appointed for this end.

At state level:

At state level the government has opened up SCERT for the development of school education in too. Its duty is to find out the faults of children and suggest the remedies for the solution of problems. Educational research has taken steps to promote the educational practices. Its area is in vast sense.

But in present day, it proceeds from school to a large organisation to solve the educational problems and finds out the actual tools and techniques for its improvement.

During 19th century, the administrations, researchers felt the real need of educational research. If much interest would not have taken in such area education would be lying flat. This would definitely hamper in the national development. Thanks to the growth and development of education the economical, social conditions of the man has reached the highest point of civilization.