Solid Waste Management: Causes, Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes

Solid wastes are the material that arises from various human and economic activities. It is being produced since the beginning of civilization. Ever increasing population growth, urbanization and industrialization are contributing to the generation of solid waste in huge quantities.

Waste is enviable; waste is by product of human activity which has lack of use. The term waste refers to the useless material generated from different sources such as household, public places, hospital, commercial centre construction sites and production of waste from industries.

Waste can be classified through various methods on the basis of physical state (solid, liquid and gaseous) and then within solid waste (according to its original use packaging waste, food waste etc.) material (glass, paper etc.) physical properties, domestic, commercial, biodegradable, non-biodegradable etc. Solid wastes have prevailing characteristics which sets them apart from the liquid and gaseous wastes.

The characteristics are that the waste remains highly visible in the environment. Liquid wastes are quickly relegated to sewer and are out of sight and gaseous wastes disperse in to the atmosphere. Accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes is having an adverse impact on the environment.

Different sources of wastes are mentioned as follows:

(i) Industrial Waste

(ii) Municipal Solid Wastes

(iii) Agricultural Waste

(iv) Mining Waste

(v) Energy Production Waste

(vi) Dredging Waste