Important facts on 7 types of Indian soil



The different types of Indian soil are as follows:

1. Alluvial Soils:

This includes the deltaic alluvium calcareous alluvial soils, Coastal alluvium and Coastal sands. It is the most important soil group of India contributing the largest share to its agricultural wealth. This soil is derived from the deposition laid by the numerous tributaries of the Indus, Ganges and the Brahmputra systems. These streams draining the Himalayas. Geologically, alluvium is divided into Khadar generally light colored sandy and Bhanger generally dark and full of "Kankar".

2. Black Soils:

These soils vary in depth from shallow to deep. The typical soil derived from Deccan trap is the "Regur" or black cotton soil. It is common in Maharashtra, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh, A.P., Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu. It is comparable with the "Chernozems of Russia and Spare soil of U. S.

3. Red Soils:

The ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks on meteoric weathering have given rise to the red soils. The red color is due to the wide diffusion of iron rather than to a high proportion of it. The soils grade from poor thin gravelly and light colored varieties of the plains and valleys. They are poor in nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, potash, iron oxide. The soils comprise vast areas of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Daman and Diu, M. P., Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, U. P. etc.

4. Late rites and Lateritic Soils:

It is a formation peculiar to India and some other countries. It is a mixture of the hydrated oxides of aluminum and iron with small amounts of manganese oxide etc. These soils are poor in lime, magnesia nitrogen, potassium oxide but humus and P2Os is high.

5. Desert Soils:

The most predominant component of this soil is quartz but feldspar and hornblende grains also occur with a fair proportion of calcareous grains. Some of these soils contain high percentage of soluble salts, possess high pH, a very high percentage of calcium carbonate and are poor in organic matter.

6. Problem Soils:

These are the soils which owing to land and soil characteristics, cannot be economically used for the cultivation of crops without adopting proper reclamation measures.

7. Acid Soils:

Soils having pH below 7 are considered to be the acidic, but those which have pH less than 5.5 and which respond to liming may be considered to qualify to be designated as acid soils. It occurs widely in Himalayan region, Genetic delta and Peninsula.