Following are the objectives of physical education, enlisted by any institution or thinker:
1. According to Bucher: Charles A. Bucher listed the objectives under four headings:
(i) Physical development objective (ii) Motor and movement development objective (iii) Cognitive and mental development objective (iv) Social development objective (v) Effective development objective.
2. According to COAPEA: The Committee on Objectives of the American Physical Education Association (1934) listed five objectives:
(i) Physical fitness (ii) mental health and efficiency (iii) Social-moral character
(iv) Emotional expression and control
3. According to Nash: Nash (1948) listed four developmental objectives: (0 Organic development (it) neuromuscular development (iii) interpretive development (iv) Emotional developments.
Objectives in General
1. Improvement in the Fields of Education:
Today, physical education is required part of most school curricula, and a number of colleges and universities offer degrees in the field. Physical education classes generally include formal exercises, sports, and contests; although an increasing emphasis has been given to such Asian techniques as yoga, karate, and judo. The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (founded 1885) is concerned with improving its fields of education and with increasing the public's knowledge and appreciation of physical education.
2. Improvement in Life-Style and Social Relationship:
Studies in the Health and Physical Education learning area provide the potential for a better quality of life for all students, now and in the future.
Effective interpersonal skills are essential for participation in meaningful and fulfilling relationships in family, school, recreation, work and community contexts. Interpersonal skills such as assertive communication, negotiation, conflict resolution, cooperation and leadership enable students to act responsibly and contribute effectively to groups and teams.
3. Individualistic Improvements:
(a) Organic Development:
The development of young people in an increasingly complex and diverse society can be characterised by rapid change, sedentary work and leisure practices, changing family structures and roles, and the promotion of unhealthy behaviors by various sources.
The Health and Physical Education learning area empowers students to critically evaluate the opportunities and challenges associated with living in modern society and teaches them how to take action to avoid injury or reduce threats to their health and well-being. Without the benefits provided by this learning area, individuals face a reduced quality of life and society increasing health care and social costs.
(b) Neuro-Muscular Development:
Students require movement, skills in order to perform competently in physical activities. Experience in fundamental movement skills in the early years of schooling supports the development of more specific skills in later childhood and participation in sport and recreation as lifelong pursuits.
Students who enjoy, participate in, appreciate and are skillful in play, games, sports, dance and outdoor recreation develop confidence and self-esteem.
(c) Personality Development: Sports and physical education have great role in an individual's personal development. Through participation in sport, recreation and other physical activities, students improve their physical skills and fitness, and become aware of the important role that motivation, enthusiasm, initiative, self-discipline, self-respect, cooperation and the assumption of responsibility play in the maintenance of healthy society.
All students develop proficient self-management skills for their own benefit, and for the benefit of the communities in which they live and work. Being able to set and achieve personal goals; plan, implement and evaluate decisions; develop self-esteem, and manage stress and cope with change and conflict are essential self-management skills that underpin a healthy and active lifestyle.
Through participation in classroom interactions, work placements, sporting, recreational and other physical activities, students develop and practice these skills. Students who possess sound self-management skills are better able to identify and avoid potential health risk, enhance their mental health and well-being, as well as planning for their future.
4. Improvement in the Sense of Responsibility:
Improving students' knowledge about health issues and practices does not guarantee they will lead healthy lifestyles. However, students who are able to identify and develop their own attitudes and values associated with leading a healthy lifestyle are better equipped to make personally and socially responsible decisions.
This has the potential to enhance the quality of their own and other people's lives. Students who are able to respect the attitudes and values of others are well placed to contribute effectively to home, school, work and community life. Study in this learning area encourages them to exhibit attitudes and values that are consistent with lifelong participation in sport and physical activity, the prevention of ill-health and the acceptance of personal responsibility for their actions.
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