Information on Three main areas of the manganese ore production in India

There are three main areas of the manganese ore production in the country.

(a) North-Eastern Region-this region in­cludes the states of Orissa and Jharkhand accounting for about 19 per cent of the manganese ore reserves and 37.3 per cent of its total production in the country.

(b) Central Indian Region-this region stretches over Madhya Pradesh and northern Maharashtra and contributes about 15 per cent of the total reserves of manganese and about 39 per cent of its total production in the country.

(c) Peninsular Region-this region incorpo­rates the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and southern Maharashtra which together provide
about 45 per cent of the total reserves and 23 per cent of the total production of manganese in India.

Table 17.XII exhibits state-wise production

Of manganesseore in India during 2002-03. According to this table Orissa is the largest producer off manganese ore in the country (37.06%) followed' Maharashtra (23.89%), Madhya Pradesh, (20.40%), Karnataka (13.42%) and Andhra Pradesh (4.39%).

Orissa-Orissa occupies second place in terms of reserves (17.62%) and first place in respect of manganese production (37.06%) in the country. In Orissa bulk of the manganese ore production comes from Keonjhar, Sundargarh, Koraput. Kalahandi and Bolangir districts, where it is associated with quartzite, garnet and schists. The mineral contents vary from 40 to 55 per cent. High grade Gonditic ores occur at Bhutura, Patmunda, Naktipalli and Jamunkria in Sundargarh district; Nishikhal (re­serves 246,000 tonnes) in Kalahandi district; Baijolla and Kutinga in Koraput district; Jamda, Koira, Bambari, Bhadrasahi, Roida, Kalimatti and Dhubna in Keonjhar district; and Satparliadungri,Bhaludungri, Gadshankar, Luhadungri, Kaniamanga and Laiman hills in Bolangir district. Small deposits are found in Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Cuttack and Mayurbhanj dis­tricts. Manganese ores in Orissa have high iron and low phosphorus contents and are suitable for blast furnace and metallurgical purpose.

Karnataka-with largest reserves of about 73 million tones Karnataka is the fourth largest producer state (13.42 per cent) of manganese ore in the country. Here Bellary is the most important producer of manganese followed by Uttar Kannada, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Tumkur and Belgaum dis­tricts.

Manganese deposits occur in pyrites, schist and marble rocks of the Dharwar system with m dium to low grade ores (30-50%), low contents phosphorus and silica and high percentage of iron Important manganese ore producing areas inclu Kamnadheruyu and Ramdurg in Bellary district Shankargudda, Kumsi, Hoshalli, Shidarhalli and Gangoor in Shimoga district; Sadarhalli, Sivagan Nagargatta, Marenhalli, Janmaur, Nakkiker; Devarpur, MadadkereandChikajajur in Chitradurga district; Chiknayakanhalli in Tumkur district; and! Uskonda, Supa Castle Rock, Londa, Tripoli a Hudra in North Kannada district. These depositsar generally lateritic and occur in tabular, ventricular and irregular bodies where psilomelane and pyrolusile are the chief minerals. Small deposits are found in Bijapur, Chikmagalur, Belgaum and Dharwad dis­tricts.

Madhya Pradesh-Madhya Pradesh contrib­utes 10.36 per cent of total manganese ore reserves and 20.40 per cent of its total production, there but occupying second place in the country.

The manga­nese belt is a continuation of the Nagpur-Bhandari deposits of Maharashtra running in a length of a boil 200 km westerly direction and a width of 25 km. Tin W ores belong to the Gondite rocks with dominant minerals like bra unite, pyrolusite and psilomelam and manganese contents from 49 to 54 per ten (silica up to 7 percent, phosphorus up to 0.17 percent and iron up to 7 per cent). This belt is the major producer of ferro-manganese grade ore in the coun­try. In this belt there are about 200 workable sites of which 20 are very important.

Balaghat( Chhindwara, Jabalpur and Jhabua districts are the major producers of manganese ore in Madhya Pradesh. In Balaghat district, the important mining areas areTirodi (north and south), Ramrama, Laugur, Ukwa, Katgaria. Varwali, Netra, Batjari, Salwa. Jam,Sukali. Mirangpur, Kochwahi, Chikpara, Bhatweli, and Sitapathor Sukri. In Chhindwara dis­trict the deposits are found in the Godavari and the Wardha river valleys at Butkum, Goti, Sitapur, Kaxhidhana, Machiwana and Gowariwadhona.

Workable deposits occur in Thandla tahsil of Jhabua district at Tumdia-Bandi war, Amliamal Kajilidongri, Rampuraand Mandhi. Small deposits of manganese ore are also found in Jabalpur, Dewas, Sehore and Nimar districts.

Maharashtra-Maharashtra occupies fourth place in respect of reserves (15 million tones or 3.61 percent of all Indian reserves) and second place in the production (3.97 lakh tones or 23.89 percent of manganese ores in India.

The ores, mostly psilomelane and bra unite are of high grade and lumpy with high manganese and low silica and iron contents. Bhandara district with main occurrences at Kusumbah, Pachala-Chikla, Dongri Buzurg, Kurnura, Bujrum, Asolpem,Phitla,Songi Kargi and Sitasaongi; and Nagpur district with mining sites at Ramdongri, Kodergaon, Gumgaon, Satak, Kandia, Mansar, Lohardongri, Moraon, Manigaon, Gondadob, Parsoda, Baldongri, Bhandar Khon etc are the main producers. The ore is utilised for the manufacture of battery and chemicals. Small deposits are also found at Redi, Fondiya and Gelel in Ratnagiri district.

Andhra Pradesh-Andhra Pradesh with about 30 lakh tones of manganese reserves contributes 4.39 percent (73,000 tones) of the total manganese production of the country. Here manganese deposits are associated with Khondalite rocks with psilomelane, pyrolusite and was as the chief ores (manganese content 32-49%). Kodur, Devada, Sonpuram, Garbham, Mamidipilli, Barua, Garividi in Srikakulam district are the important mining centers. Small deposits have been found in Sankaralem and Kothavalasa in Vishakhapatnam district.

Goa-Goa contributes about 2.6 per cent (50 lakh tones) of the total reserves of manganese and 0.60 per cent of its total production in the country. It has low grade of manganese ore (manganese ore content) with manganese content between 15 and 30 per cent. Pernem and Barder areas are the main centers of production.

Jharkhand-Jharkhand has a small manga­nese ore reserve of about 2 million tones and its annual production is roughly 4 thousand tones. Lateritoid deposits (mineral contents 40-55 percent) occur at Birmitrapur, Kalenda, Gitilpi andTutugute near Chaibasa while low grade ores are found be­tween Mirgitnaur, and Basadera and Pahadpur in Singhbhum district (Jharkhand). Some manganese deposits are also located in Hazaribag, Dhanbad, Gaya (Jharkhand) and Munger (Bihar) districts.

Gujarat-In Gujarat deposits of manganese ore (psilomelane and braunite with mineral contents between 31 and 56 percent) are located near Jatvad, Shivajpur, Dohad, Bhat and Bomankua in Panchmahals district and near Pani and between Khandi and Unadharia in Vadodara district. Low- grade ores are also found in Banaskantha, Sabarkantha and Panchamahals districts. The total estimated re­serves of manganese ore in the state are about 2.5 million tones.

Rajasthan-In Rajasthan low to medium grade manganese ores are found near Itala, Tambesara, Sevania, Kaiakhunta, Sagwara and Loharia in Banswara district. Smaller deposits are reported from Debari to Nathuwara in Udaipur district and at Hirapur in Pali district. The estimated reserves of the state are about 2 million tones.

West Bengal-West Bengal has estimated re­serves of manganese ore at lakh tones. Medinipur district is the main producer.