The relations between Pakistan and India have been subject to many strains by numerous political dilemmas in history and currently as well, they include the Partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the many military conflicts which have been fought between the two states. These two states of South Asia share historic, cultural, geographic and economic links but their relationship has been filled with hostility and doubt.
During the times of Independence Jinnah and Gandhi had overheated discussions, moreover around five hundred thousand Muslims and Hindus were murdered in riots following the partition. Millions of Muslims living in India and Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan emigrated, it was a massive transmissions of population till today. Both states accused the other of not providing enough security to the minorities that war emigrating, this increased hostility amongst the two new nations.
In terms with the British Plan for Partition, all the princely states had the right to decide which country to join. With an exception of a few, most of the Muslim-majority princely state joined Pakistan, and most of Hindu-majority princely state joined India. But, the decisions of one of the Princely state would shape the relationship between the two countries in the future that lay ahead.
Over all with the British Raj leaving in 1947, two sovereign states were born, the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. This partition from the British displaced around 12.5 million people and there were many losses to lives some say a hundred thousand while others say a million. Pakistan was established as an Islamic republic and India became a secular nation.
After this Independence, India and Pakistan had formed diplomatic relations but the effects of the fierce partition and territorial conflicts kind of suppressed the diplomatic relationship. Since Partition the two countries have fought three wars with each other, one war was undeclared, they also have been involved in various armed skirmishes and military standstills. Besides the Indo-Pakistan War in 1971 which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, the conflict with Kashmir has been central to all these wars and issues between the two states.
Steps have been taken many at times to better the relations between the two neighbors these include the Agra Summit, Shimla Summit and the Lahore Summit. After 1980 there was hostility between the two nations mainly because of the Siachen conflict, the worsening of the Kashmir insurgency in 1989, the nuclear tests of India and Pakistan in 1998 and in 1999 the Kargil War. Other confidence building measures such as the 2003 ceasefire and the Delhi Lahore Bus service were victorious in improving relations. However the terrorist attacks that occur have ruined such efforts. The attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001 almost started a nuclear war between the two states. The bombings in 2007 of the Samjhauta express in which 68 people were killed who were mostly Pakistanis, accompanied by the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants served as knife to the bond of the two nations. These events have soured the peace talks immensely.