The Pakistan Army is part of the Pakistani Armed forces and its duty is mainly land base military operations. After the Partition in 1947 and the independence of Pakistan this Army came into being. At this moment it is headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kiyani. The Army in Pakistan is a volunteer based profession or fighting force. In accordance with the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) it has members which are active amounting up to 550, 000 members in the year 2010. With regard to the Pakistan constitution there is a provision for conscription but till date it has never been imposed on anyone.
After 1947, the army has been part of four wars with its neighbor India and has had various border fights with its other neighbor Afghanistan. It has also provided brigade and division support in many Arab Countries during the prior Arab-Israeli wars, and it also helped in the coalition in the first Gulf War. There have been many other great operations taken by the Army which comprise of the Operation black Thunderstorm and the operation Rah-e-Nijat. The army despite many arguments and conflicts has been a participant in UN missions and performed an important role in rescuing American Soldiers who were trapped in Mogadishu, Somalia in 199 through the Operation Gothic Serpent.
The Pakistani President is supposed to be the Commander in Chief and the head commander of the Army. The Chief of Army Staff, a four star general subordinate to the defense minister by status but senior to the secretary general runs or takes command of the army and its operations.
The main purpose or mission of the Army in Pakistan according to the Constitution is that under the orders of the Federal Government, the Army will protect Pakistan against external violence and threat of Combat.
With regard to the command structure, the Commander in chief or the Chief of army staff works or heads the army form the headquarters situated in Rawalpindi. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO) who aid him in carrying out his responsibilities at the Lieutenant General level comprise of firstly a Chief of General Staff (CGS); it is under him that the Military operations and intelligence directors functions. Then under the CGS comes the Chief of logistics Staff, the Adjutant General, the Quarter master General, the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation and the Military Secretary. According to a great reorganization in September 2008 under General Ahfaq Kiyani, two new PSO positions were created, these are the Inspector General Arms and the inspector General Communications and IT, thus increasing the number of PSO positions to eight.
Even though most of the officers were Muslin in the 1970s, they were serving under Christian officers; the highest rank was of Major General Julian Peter who was appointed as the General Officer commanding of a Division and as a general staff officer at Army Headquarters even till the year 2006. The rank structure is one like the British Army Model, mainly because of colonization and the British help in Independence matters.