Computer is an electronic device which can take input from the user and process this input data and if need, store data or information on storage devices and give output on output devices. It follow the instructions us it is which we input. It takes input through Keyboard, mouse, etc and then it processes the input data and give output on display screen and store data if need.
Mostly called personal computer (PC), design to fit completely on a typical desk of office or home. It mainly comes with a monitor, a minitower or horizontal casing. Today, mostly
Casing contains processor, hard disk in gigabytes, built-in modem, LAN port, USB ports and CD-ROM. Over the past few years. CPU processing speed has been increasing processing speed can be increase by adding capable RAM, capable BUS, high processor which have high processing cycle, hence more heat is also produced we use heat sinks and fans for the removal of heat from the computer as higher temperature can cause severe damage to the computer, fans are noisy and aren’t much effective so the new trend is liquid cooling. It’s just like a radiator installed for cooling, a liquid is circulated in the heat sink attached to the processor heat is transferred from the processor to the liquid is then transferred to the radiator the liquid is cooled down there and then again circulated to the heat sink. It’s less noisy as compared to fan as high speed processor clocked at higher speed need fan rpm over 7500. This new trend is helpful for the people who want to over clock their processors. Over clocking means to gain higher speed from the same processor, or running the processor at extreme level in which cooling come as very important factor.
Laptop is a portable computer which can be easily used on lap. Small enough to fit in briefcase mostly called “notebook”. It can run directly by electric source or on batteries. Most of laptop weighs less than five pounds and are less than three inches thick. Laptop mostly cost more than desktop computers with same specifications, because they are difficult to build than desktop computer.
It contains almost things which are in desktop but have built-in LCD, keyboard and mouse. New technology which is introduced in laptop is PROCESSOR: Core i7-2600K Quad Core, DDR3 SDRAM with a memory clock frequency of 100 MHz gives a maximum rate of transfer of 6400 MB per second. Now introduce DDR4, SDRAM. HARD DISK: Seagate Barracuda 1.50TB internal hard drive. BATTERY: Micromanagement miraculous battery 12-hours timing, GAMING GRAPHICES: NVIDIA before GTX 400m series. Another new trend is of gaming laptops let’s take an example of the new alien ware m11x the most powerful 11inch desktop with 1gb NVIDIA 335M graphics, with 7 hours of battery time with Nvidia Optimus graphics switching technology, DDR3 ram.
There are many advantages of laptop and some are it is in light weight and is portable, can be used while traveling, in home or in office. It run on batteries and that’s why it can be used anywhere, anytime depending on batteries. There is no need of external keyboard, mouse or displaying screen.
They are hardly difficult to repair and are more expensive as compare to desktop. If there is any problem in CPU or in graphics then they can’t be repaired by normal technician.
A small computer which mostly fit in your palm as compared to notebook or desktop computers. It has limited features, but famous for certain things like phonebook, calendars, etc. It is used by a pen rather than a keyboard or mouse as an input, and mostly called PDA or hand-held computers. Due to small size they don’t have disk drives but instead palmtop includes PCMCIA slots through which you can insert disk drive and other devices.
By the use of palmtop computer we can easily make our virtual world. Example we make models of factories, industries, or now it can be use as a projector. Processing speed of palmtop is increased. Palmtop have touch screen instead of a keyboard or mouse to input data. 3D technology is introduced in Palmtop computer.
It is small in size and it is easily portable. It is many features and can be also use for special purpose. Communication is easy by this type of computer.
This type of computer has very small screen and has a limited or small memory. Because of its limited features, it has less functionality as compare to PC.
Difference between Palmtop and laptop:
Palmtop computer is smaller as compared to laptop. Laptop has key board, mouse to input but in Palmtop computer there is no keyboard and mouse. Size of a Palmtop is so small that it can easily fit in our one hand. Laptop has a CDROM, DVDROM etc but Palmtop has no CD ROM or DVD Rom. Laptop has more large memory as compared to Palmtop. Palmtop can be handled by holding with hand and Laptop can be used on lap.
A large digital computer which serves more than three hundred users and have special A.C room.It can process million of program instructions per second. Mainframes are mainly used in airline and railway reservations system, banks, etc.
New trends Ibm has given its new mainframe, the ability to manage power and x86 IBM blade system for the mainframe consol. It can have 96 processors, will support up to 114 blades with eight cores, it includes 5.2Ghz quad processor and up to 3tb of memory IBM says its latest mainframe has a 60% performance gain.
SUPERCOMPUTER is the fastest computer of the world in terms of processing. It is very powerful and very expensive, everyone can’t afford supercomputers. The most use of Supercomputer is in military applications, weather forecasting, industrial design, and oil exploration. Here the example of fastest supercomputer “JAGUAR” .It is on rank three today but it will soon on number one. Jaguar is working on upgrade which lift JAGUAR to ten to twenty pet flops in end 2013.Which will lead it to the top supercomputers. Due to this up gradation it will cross Tinahe-1A and K, after that it will become fastest computer. The most likely things is that they are introducing GPUs (Graphical Processing Unit) in Jaguar. If a CPU could have fifteen and more computing cores then GPU could have more than hundred.
They are extra ordinary fast, good for scientific research/simulations. Speed, amount of things that can run at once without it slowing down, better graphics capabilities for gaming and graphics designing, and smoother performance.
They are incredibly expensive, they use a lot of power compared to a standard home/business computer. If they heat up than they may damage main components of computer which are expensive and will cost extra, and are incredibly expensive.
All simple purpose computers require the hardware component which are, Central Processing Unit (CPU) mostly called the heart of computer, it actually executes input. Memory gives opportunity to computer to save data temporarily. Input device usually contains a keyboard or mouse it tells the computer what to do. Output device mostly contains a display screen, projector, etc it tells us what the computer has done. Mass storage device allow computer to save data permanently, mostly contains hard disk, compact disk, etc.