Education is a co-current state level subjects and under the Indian Constitution education is made a Fundamental Right and Directive Principles of State Policy further needed free education and other facilities to children. There is no discrimination among the people on the basis of religion, caste or creed/faith etc. However, the minorities are given right to run their own educational institutions with financial aid from Government and they are free to introduce their religion, language in their institution. Education is compulsory and free upto primary standard.
Indian education system has a wide structure and the educational institutions can introduce the education or learning pattern as below VA years in pre-nursery schools, in the primary schools upto V class or so. Education is further upgraded upto 10+2 system where the examinations are conducted by the Board at 10 and 12. Thereafter, students are free to choose the courses of their own at any stage, i.e. primary, secondary, senior secondary level.
Schools are of different levels. Local Boards run the schools upto Primary, V standard, both in mother tongue and English medium. Thereafter the schools may upgrade themselves upto X known as Secondary schools. They can also be upgraded upto 12, called Senior Secondary schools. The education is a co-current (state level) subject and the Central Government cannot interfere in their functioning. As such schools are pre- primary, pre-nursery, then primary, secondary and senior secondary run both by the private bodies as well as by Government.
Indian schools are not as well organised as they are expected. Private/Public school charge high fee and have control on their institution. They only need the registration by the Centre/State Government or their Bodies and Management. While the Education Department has a loose control over these Private/ Public Schools government has its own schools where the normal fee is charged and the students belong with poor section of society. Overall the condition of government schools is pathetic.
At state level School Education has its own organisational set up. Under this democratic set up Education Deptt is supported by the Minister of Education who has a Secretary of Education to supervise the Department with the help of Director Education who belongs to I.A.S. cadre of service. The Department is further divided into districts Deputy, Joint Directors to look after the working of schools.
Under the educational system Central Board Secondary Education (C.B.S.E) is set up to maintain, the quality in Education and provide minimum qualification of the teaching staff and other necessary requirement for the school and conduct the Exams 10 and 12 standard. It has a control over both Public Private and Government Schools. After the exam; issues certificates of 10th and 12th class/standard this student who passed the Examination. C B.S.E. has its office in New Delhi.
Under the Education system to keep the hi standard of Education and to maintain to quality Education an independent body is set up known N.C.E.R.T. that is National Council of Education Research and Training with its Headquarters at N Delhi. This institution published textbooks for t school on all subjects and has a panel of specialists its list. The books are to be taught at schools in t country. It also conducts the competitive examination at all India level for the talent search from primary lei upto graduation and provides stipend or sponsors to that highly talented students.
Teachers are the backbone of the educational system in India. Government has set up a permanent body for the selection of the teachers known as N.C.T. i.e. National Council of Teachers Education. It conducts the training and selection of the teachers and provides certificate/degree for the teachers which are an essential qualification for the teachers who seek the employment in teaching schools known as B.Ed, or Shastri education.
MIEPA in set up by the Government to look after the administration and planning of education in the country the body is known as National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. It looks ail the work of the educational /teaching/administration under the ministry of HRD an autonomous body.
Kendriya Vidyalay Organisation (KVO) was set up under the Education Ministry, Government of India, New Delhi. It established 10+2 system in schools all over the country for the Government employees who use to effect posted or transferred in the country. It is good for the Central Government employees and schools are run on the medium of English from primary to twelfth standard.
State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) are set up in all the states to look after the training and research work on the lines of NCERT which is at all India level. Its refresher courses, even modifies the curriculum of the schools and textbooks arc written for the secondary level standard in the state. It also arranges seminars, discusses and refresher courses for the teaching staff.
There are a number of educational institutions at the District level. A Distt. Officer/ Inspector of schools looks after the educational institutions in his/her district. He/She also coordinates the different activities upto the Commissioner, State level in each district. Under this scheme, a college (Inter) 10+2 on the Government expenses is to be spent in each District and other schools are under his observation. Besides, a training centre for Primary teachers, or other refresher courses also opened in the district. The recruitment institute for the teachers, examination centers and the Boards offices are also on the line, such as Minorities schools.
Local educational institutions play an important role in the area of education. As our country is poor and cannot afford the heavy expenses of Educational institutions, local education body's arc allowed opening their schools and Government recognizes these institutions at par with the Government institutions. Minority institutions have their own schools with their own expenses or Government grants in-aid. But they fill the gap and help the Government to reduce its burden.