Reforestation is the restocking of existing forests and woodlands, which have been depleted, with native tree stock.
The term reforestation can also refer to afforestation, the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forest that once existed but were deforested or otherwise removed or destroyed at some point in the past. The resulting forest can provide both ecosystem and resource benefits and has the potential to become a major carbon sink.
Reforestation can occur naturally if the area is left largely undisturbed. Native forests are often resilient and may re-establish themselves quickly. Conceptually, it involves taking no active role in reforesting a deforested area, but rather just letting nature take its course.
Reforestation need not be only used for recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. In some countries, such as Finland, the wood products and pulp and paper industry manage the forest.
In such an arrangement, like other crops, trees are replanted wherever they are cut. In such circumstances, the cutting of trees can be carefully done to allow easier reforestation.
In Canada, the Reforestation, if several native species are used can provide other benefits in addition to financial returns, including restoration of the soil, rejuvenation of local flora and fauna, and the capturing and sequestering of 38 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare per year.
Joint Forest Management
India has been giving a lot of emphasis on forest development. The Joint Forest Management (JFM) is being practiced in most of the states in the country. Total area covered under JFM in the country as on 1st January, 2004 has been put at 17331955.12 ha., the total number of JFM committees managing and protecting this area is 84632.
The maximum number of JFM committees is in Orissa (the number of JFM committees being 19585 and the area being 8.21 lakhs ha.)