The interface of air, water and land, forming the life supporting layer, and known as biosphere, is the broadest geoecosystem, which is the spatial unit for the study of environmental science.
The prime concern of Environmental Science is thus to study the components of natural environment separately and together, their linkages at various levels through environmental (physical) and biological processes and human responses to the environment vis-a-vis man- environment relationships.
The scope of environmental study includes three basic aspects of environmental science/ studies: (1) Fundamental concepts and aspects of environment and its relationships with man and society, the meaning, composition and types of environment; relationships between environment; man and nature; environment and society; ecology and ecosystem; fundamental concepts and principles of ecology; ecology and man-environment relationships; basic principles of environmental processes (geo-environmental); man-environmental processes-relationships etc.
(2) Ecosystem and environmental degradation and pollution; structure and components of ecosystems; energy flow in the ecosystem; bio-geochemical cycles and circulation of matter in the ecosystem; productivity of the ecosystem; stability and instability; ecological changes in the ecosystem (evolution, dispersal and extinction of species of plants and animals); spatial distribution of plants and animals; biome types; environmental degradation and crisis, types and causes of environmental degradation and pollution and pollution control programmes.
(3) Environmental management concept and bases of environmental management; classification and assessment of ecological resources; measures and planning of environmental management and major environmental programmes.