What are the Responsibility of the Central and State Governments in Promoting Education?



The Constitution of India provides educational functions at three levels viz. Central, State and Concurrent. The forty-second Amendment, 1976 brought about drastic changes in the Indian Constitution. It affected the status of education also by putting it on the Concurrent List. Centre and the state can legislate 011 any aspect of education from the primary to the university level. In case of any dispute, legislation framed by the central government will have overriding authority. By having education in the Concurrent List, the centre can implement directly any policy decision in the states.

Arguments in favour of making education a concurrent subject:

(a) To Ensure Uniformity in the Education Policy:

Education pattern should be of a uniform character in the entire country. It is possible only when education is made a concurrent subject.

(b) Better Implementation of Education Policies:

When education is on the Concurrent List, the Centre will ensure that the States implement its decision in right earnest. With education as a concurrent subject, the states will become more serious in implementing decisions.

(c) Better Utilisation of Funds:

When the funds are allocated by the Central Government, it is in the fitness of things that it should have a say in their utilisation.

(d) Quality Leadership from the Central Government:

The centre should provide good and effective leadership. This should not be taken as a reflection on the intelligential in the State, but centre is better equipped to provide education leadership at the national level.

(e) For Better Discipline:

The Centre should have the power to overrule the decisions of the State Government. Then general standards of education will also improve. In Indian Education Service, man of calibre will take to join.

(f) Improvement in Standards:

Being a concurrent subject, by education, all India level of research in the field of education will improve and the research findings will be better utilised at the national and state levels.

Arguments against making education a concurrent subject

(a) Based on Democratic Values:

State Government has enjoyed the privilege of having education under their control. Why should they give it up or allow the centre to interfere the only sphere in which states have enjoyed full powers? Further, democracy believes in decentralisation of powers. Why then education a concurrent subject, they ask?

(b) States have Better Appreciation of Local Needs:

The State Government knows the needs of its inhabitants better. The centre cannot appreciate the educational needs of a remote village school say in Rajasthan or Tamil Nadu. So let education remain in the hands of States.

(c) Free from Red Tapism:

If education becomes a concurrent subject, more bureaucrats will interfere with it. Perhaps the implementation of decisions may be delayed. States will have to seek clearance from the centre. If we want education to be remain free from bureaucracy, let us remain it a subject of state.

(d) Sense of Security to Minorities:

Minorities are more close to the State Governments. The minorities can also progress accordingly if education is a State subject.

(e) Unity in Diversity:

When Indian culture is "Unity in Diversity ". Let each State lias its own pattern of education to preserve its identity and culture.

National policy on education (NPE) 1986

Centre-State Partnership:

The NPE has accepted the concurrency in education. According to it; concurrency signifies a meaningful partnership between the Central Government and the State Governments. The Central Government's role could be to promote excellence at all levels of the educational pyramid throughout the country.

Role of Private Enterprises:

The private enterprise is to be encouraged in the field of education in various technical and non-technical sectors especially for the promotion of adult education.

Role of Local Communities:

NPE visualises an important role of local communities in the promotion of education. As an ultimate objective, it is essential that school and their local communities should be intimately associated with the educational process. The Role of Central Government

(i) The improvement of teacher's status and teacher education.

(ii) The development of a programme of scholarships.

(iii) The utilisation of educational opportunities with special reference to the education of inter-state differences and the ado moment of weaker sections of the community.

(iv) The provision of free and compulsory education as directed by the Constitution.

(v) The vocationalisation of the secondary education and the improvement of standards at the school stage.

(vi) The development of higher education and research with special reference to the post-graduate stage.

(vii) The development of professional education in agriculture and industry.

(viii) The promotion of scientific and technical research.

(ix) The promotion of vocational studies.

(x)The promotion of educational research.

Central Government and Financial Assistance to State

(i) Grant-in-aid to the State Government on account of their committed expenditure, through the quinquennial finance commissions.

(ii) Grants-in-aid for development expenditure given for the plan as a whole, through the Planning Commission.

(iii)Expansion of the central and the centrally- sponsored sectors.