It refers to increase in size of the body and also progress in some natural skills like eating, sitting, walking etc., etc., in the beginning these skills are irregular and unbalanced, but by constant efforts by child himself and with the help of parents and family members, he becomes more and more skilled and perfect.
A child naturally learns to sit, crawl, stand, jump, walk and run, but there are certain other activities for which help of family members or teacher is inevitable. For example dancing and swimming.
During infancy a child learns only number of motor skills like holding his head erect, use of hands to reach out to something and to hold it firmly or to put it into his mouth. Gradually the skills of balancing, climbing and using hands to hold feeding bottles etc., are perfected by the time he is about 1½ to 2 yrs of age. And at this juncture, he starts speaking a few words also. This is the time when a infant enters the early childhood.
From 2 years onwards, the child not only perfects the skills already learnt, but also learns new ones. He can now climb the stairs like an adult. He can run, jump, eat his food, speak to others in complete meaningful sentences, play with toys and things, build a house or tower from blocks etc.
With the passing of each year, his motor abilities become more and more smooth and accomplished. This ways he goes on becoming more and more independent for doing his own work. The further development in this direction makes him helpful for others like his siblings, age mates and family members. The socialization of child starts gradually. He learns to help others and can seek cooperation from others.
A 10 years old girl can easily comb her hairs and she now tries to comb the hairs of his younger brother or sister. With the age, the child grows physically as well as socially, emotionally and intellectually.
When a child is about 3-4 years of age, he is enrolled into school. There he meets many age-mates. He makes friends and learns to play, work and share with them. Sometimes there is fight but the reconciliation's also follow soon. All these happenings are part of social development of child.
Emotionally also a child grows and expresses more emotion like anger, jealousy distress, love and affection etc. with the age the expression of emotions become more and more mature. Where as during infancy a child only cried or smiled to express his emotions.
Simultaneously, the intellectual development of child also takes place. He learns to read and write and increases his knowledge. He can now make full sentences without anybody's help and solve complex problems.
All these are general and natural activities associated with growth, development and socialization of a child. But it is also a very important fact that each individual child is different from others and so tyr exists some difference in growth, and socialization of a child. Every child shows changes in physical, social, intellectual and emotion aspects, but the time of change differs for each individual.
In spite of all these factors, the environment of family has by far the most important, significant and permanent influence on building up a child into a socially acceptable citizen.