The non-projected two-dimensional visuals, which are also called graphics, are the most used as teaching-learning aids. Even though graphics materials are created by a teacher to simplify illustrate and concretize learning experiences which may otherwise be abstract, the most productive use of graphics in an active learning situation is the student creation of the graphic material.
Kinds of Non-projected Two Dimensional Visuals:
Diagrams are very helpful in supplementing vertical illustrations in teaching. Difficult operations may be explained with the help of diagrams. The parts of a flower or leaf can be suitably explained by means of sketches drawn by the teacher in front of the class on the blackboard. Simple diagrams can be used to explain different phenomena in geography and science. The diagrams of battle plans and forts can be drawn on the blackboard. The area and volume, etc., in mathematics can be illustrated through diagrams. A teacher is expected to possess the skill of drawing diagrams easily, neatly, rapidly and readily on the blackboard.
A chart is a visual symbol for summarizing or comparing or contrasting or performing other helpful services in explaining subject matter. Charts can present virtually, anything except statistical or geographical data. Charts are of different types:
1. Time Chart
2. Tabular Chart
3. Tree Chart
4. Stream Chart
5. Organisational Chart
6. Process Chart
7. Sequence Chart
A graph is a diagrammatic treatment or representation of numeric or quantitative data. Graphs are of three fundamental forms - line, bar and circle. In a way, graphs provide a teacher with the possibility of concretizing number and their relationships and provide the learner with a scope to compare, contrast and analyse figures and trends.
A map is a visual representation of the whole or part of the earth. It is drawn to a scale and maintains the directional relationship of the parts. As a teaching-learning aid, maps are indispensable in teaching fundamental concepts such as size, distance, space, location and direction.
A poster is a bold and symbolic representation of a single idea. Among the two-dimensional visuals, posters are the most eye-catching because their function itself is to attract the attention and pass on a single message.
Posters have both visual and verbal components and the verbal component is often called the 'caption'. What is basic to a poster is the caption and the visual/pictorial part is for attraction and subsequently to support the message contained in the caption. Posters can be highly creative in their content and presentation when compared with any other graphic.