The Chinese revolution was chiefly a political one and as a result of this revolution the form of kingship was altered in China. But it did not bring any change in social and economic structure of the Chinese society.
Under the leadership of Yuan Shi Kai the reactionary elements went on growing and at last the revolution proved to be a failure.
Undoubtedly, the Manchu dynasty declined due to the outbreak of Chinese revolution of 1911 but no reformative step could be taken in China. The people of China were expecting the beginning of a new era after the revolution but their wishes could not be fulfilled.
Hence this was an unsuccessful revolution and Yuan Shi Kai was totally responsible for its failure. It was the fundamental mistake on the part of the revolutionary party to accept the reactionary Yuan Shi Kai as their President.
The people of China were lacking in the national spirit and the provincial and local rulers were busy grinding their own axes. They did not recognise China as a nation. The provincial rulers always acted according to their own selfishness.
They instead of giving significance to the Central government always tried to maintain their freedom.
Even after the establishment of the Republic in China, this spirit did not come to an end nor could China be united as a nation. Hence the lack of feeling of nationalism contributed a lot to the failure of the Chinese revolution of 1911.
The people of China were not awakened to their interests which was essential for the success of any revolution. No doubt the republic was established in China but the people failed to understand its significance for want of education.
Hence the success of the revolution was doubtful. The republic had to face several problems due to illiteracy and the revolution failed as a result of it.
Even after the establishment of a republican government the economic condition of the people did not improve.
In case, the new government had taken some steps in this direction, the economic condition of the people of China would have improved and they might have realised the significance of the revolution but negligence of the government and lack of economic resources were responsible for the failure of the revolution of 1911.
Undoubtedly the revolution of 1911 failed to achieve its purpose but it did not mean that the revolution was altogether insignificant.
The end of Manchu dynasty and the establishment of republic were two important achievements of the revolution. It also gave a new life and speed to the stagnant politics of China.