II. On the Basis of Raw Material and Finished Goods
Industries classified on the basis of raw materials and finished goods are:
1. Heavy Industries.
Industries which use heavy and bulky raw-materials and produce products of the same category are called heavy industries. Iron and steel industry is a good example of heavy industries.
2. Light Industries.
The light industries use light raw-materials and produce light finished products. Electric fans, sewing machines are examples of light industries.
III. On the basis of Ownership
With the start of the planned development of the Indian economy in 1951, industries have been divided in the following four classes:
1. Private Sector Industries.
Industries owned by individuals or firms, such as Bajaj Auto or TISCO (Jamshedpur), are called private sector industries.
2. Public Sector Industries.
Industries owned by the state and its agencies like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., or Bhilai Steel Plant or Durgapur Steel Plant are Public Sector industries.
3. Joint Sector Industries.
Industries owned jointly by the private firms and the state or its agencies such as Gujarat Alkalies Ltd., or Oil India Ltd. fall in the category of joint sector industries.
3. Co-operative Sector Industries.
Industries owned and run co-operatively by a group of people who are generally producers of raw materials of the given industry such as a sugar mill owned and run by farmers are called co-operative sector industries.
IV. On the Basis of Source of Raw Material
On the basis of source of raw materials, industries are classified as under:
1. Agro-based Industries.
Agro-based industries are those industries which draw raw material from agriculture. Cotton textile, jute textile and sugar are examples of such agro-based industries.
2. Mineral-based Industries.
These industries are those which get raw materials from minerals like iron and steel and cement industries.
3. Pastoral-based Industries.
These industries depend upon animals for their raw material. Hides, skins, shoes, dairy, etc. are some of the pastoral-based industries.
4. Forest-based Industries.
Paper, plywood, lac, rayon, resin, furniture, sports are forest-based industries.
V. Miscellaneous Industries
These Industries are classified into the following categories:
1. Village Industries.
Village industries are located in villages and serve the needs of the rural people. They usually employ local machinery such as oil extractors, flour grinders, kohlu, kharat and agricultural implements.
2. Cottage Industries.
Industries which artisans set up in their own houses, like wood, cane, brass and marble work are called cottage industries. Handloom, khadi and leather work at the artisan's house fall in this category.
3. Consumer Industries.
Consumer industries convert raw materials or primary products into commodities directly used by the people. Textiles, bakeries, sugar, etc. are some of the consumer industries.
4. Ancillary Industries.
The industries which manufacture parts and components to be used by big industries for manufacturing heavy articles like trucks, buses, railway engines, tractors etc. arc called ancillary industries.
5. Basic Industries.
Industries on which depend many other industries for their manufacturing processes are called basic industries. Iron and steel industry and power generating industry are in this category.
6. Capital-intensive Industry.
Industries requiring huge investments are called capital-intensive industries. Iron and steel, cement etc. are capital-intensive industries.
7. Labour-intensive Industries.
Such industries which require huge labour force for running them are called labour-intensive industries. In these industries, labour is more important than capital. Shoe-making and bidi-manufacturing, etc. are included in these industries.
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