1. Volume of water in the rivers has lessened on account of construction of canals for irrigation purposes.
2. The peninsular rivers depend on rainfall for their volume of water. Thus during dry periods, these appear to be ribbons of water only.
3. The peninsular rivers flowing westwards meet the sea through estuaries. Their courses are short and often they make waterfalls and have steep gradient.
4. Most of the large rivers of the country enter the sea through shallow sand chocked delta channels. Thus navigation is hampered unless dredging is done.
The Inland Waterway Authority of India was set up on 27 October, 1986. The Authority is entrusted with the responsibility of development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways and also to advise the central and state governments on matters relating to development of I. W T.
There is scope for private participation in Inland Water Transport (IWT) operation and creation of infrastructural facilities. The authority has formulated various schemes] for creation of necessary I.WT infrastructure.
There are four major and three medium size shipyards in India which are in the Public sector. There are nearly 21 small shipyards in the private sector and state Government sector. The Hindustan Shipyard was set up in 1941 at Vishakhapatnam as Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd.
It was handed over to the Government in 1952 and was named as Hindustan Shipyard. In 1962, the shipyard came up as a cent per cent Public sector enterprise. The yard aims at: (i) New ship building, (ii) Repair facilities, (Hi) Construction of offshore platforms for the ONGC.
The shipyard has a capacity of building ships of 50,000 DWT and dry dock, wetbasin, repair shops etc for repairs of ships.
A shipyard (CSL) was set up in the Public sector in Cochin in March 1972. The yard is capable of constructing ships of 1, 00,000 DWT and repair ships upto 1, 25,000 DWT.
The yard has constructed 8 largest ships (fire bulk carriers and three crude oil tankers).
National Ship Design and Research Centre (NSDRC) has been set up at Vishakhapatnam with the object of assisting and guiding ship building and shipping activity in the country
In addition, ship repairs facilities have been set up at Madras port. West India Shipyard Ltd. is functioning at Mormugao on the West Coast.